International Journal of Language and Literary Studies <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> en-US Fri, 05 Aug 2022 21:08:16 +0000 OJS 60 Narrating Homosexuality across Borders and Beyond Boundaries in Hanan Al-Shaykh's Only in London (2001) <p><em>The present paper examines Hanan al-Shaykh's interrogations of homosexuality across borders and beyond the boundaries of East and West in ‘Only in London’ (2001), a diasporic novel with a Lebanese homosexual protagonist, Samir. It analyzes the ways in which the heterosexual, social, and power networks established to ostensibly force Samir's homosexuality into the closet work to eliminate the existence of homosexuality as an independent identity in Arab society. Drawing on Michael Foucault's framework of sexuality and biopolitical analysis, the paper negotiates the depiction of mental hospital scenes, the medicalization of Samir's homosexuality, and the social pathologization of his alternative gender and sexuality as instruments of "bio-politics of the population" designed to lock homosexuality into a "pathological phenomenon", which has to be medicalized in order to conform to homonormative mainstream culture. It demonstrates how through the mechanisms of biopower, and techniques of surveillance of bodies, Samir's homosexuality is turned into an object of intense observation, study, and power relations. It maintains that the pathologizing psychiatric discourse, the heterosexual institution of marriage, Samir's family, and the state are all complicit with the heteropatriarchal taxonomies of sexuality. The paper further illustrates how being Arab, an immigrant, and a homosexual in London complicate Samir's existence as an alien homosexual being in exile.</em></p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong></p> Mohamed Batauoi Copyright (c) 2022 Mohamed Batauoi Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Phonology of Geminates in Bedouin Hijazi Arabic: An Optimality Theoretic Approach <p><em>This paper examines the phonology of geminates in Bani Sulaim dialect, BSD, a Bedouin Hijazi dialect spoken in Saudi Arabia, within Optimality Theory framework, OT. The analysis covers lexical geminates, phonologically derived geminates through assimilation, and gemination as a compensatory strategy to compensate for lost mora after vowel deletion. The paper explores the interaction between vowel deletion, assimilation, and compensatory lengthening. In BSD, lexical geminates are phonemically contrastive with singletons in word medial and word final positions, while phonologically derived geminates are found in word initial and word final positions through assimilation. Using OT constraints, ranking the markedness constraints, that disallow certain consonant clusters in the output, higher than the faithfulness constraints shows that phonotactically prohibited consonant clusters are avoided through total assimilation that results in gemination. The final phonological process that generates geminates in BSD is a form of consonant lengthening to adhere to the moraic weight requirement of the dialect. In addition to presenting new data, this paper contributes to the sparse literature on geminates in Bedouin dialects.</em></p> Majed AL SOLAMI Copyright (c) 2022 Majed AL SOLAMI Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Representation in Moroccan EFL Textbooks’ Conversations: A Quantitative and Qualitative Content Analysis <p><em>By employing two analytical methods, this study investigates gender representation in the conversations of an EFL textbook currently used in Moroccan secondary schools. First, a quantitative content analysis studies the following four criteria: (1) dialogue initiation, (2) turn-taking, (3) the number of words used, and (4) the number of participants. Second, a qualitative content analysis of all the textbook conversations is carried out by examining males’ and females’ topics of the talks, their active/passive roles, their high/low status, and gender differences in language use. Although the results indicated a minor numeric difference favouring males, the qualitative analysis proved an obvious stereotypical depiction of female participants in conversations' topics by connecting them with household chores' issues and assigning them traditional gender roles. Furthermore, gender differences in language use were discovered, which confirms the results of prominent figures in the area, such as Lakoff (1975), Spender (1980), and Tannen (1991). The paper ends with a conclusion and some recommendations aiming at supporting textbooks free of sexist attitudes.</em></p> Hassane BENLAGHRISSI Copyright (c) 2022 Hassane BENLAGHRISSI, L. Meriem Ouahidi Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Phonological Ordering Constraint of the Short-Before-Long Preference Tendency in Qassimi Arabic Binomial Phrases: a Quantitative Analysis <p><em>Research on the phonological constraints on the linear order in binomial phrases has proven that the tendency to place the short conjunct before the long one can be active differently in different languages. The current research addresses the short-before-long preference tendency in binomials in Qassimi Arabic. It shows that Qassimi Arabic binomials manifest the short-before-long preference in three possible forms: (1) the conjunct containing the fewer phonemes (i.e., the shorter item) tends to precede the one containing the more phonemes (i.e., the longer item) within the same binomial phrase, (2) the conjunct containing the fewer syllables (i.e. the shorter item) tends to precede the one containing the more syllables (i.e. the longer item) within the same binomial phrase, and (3) the conjunct containing the shorter vowel (i.e. the shorter item) tends to precede the one containing the longer vowel (i.e. the longer item) within the same binomial phrase. To approve the real existence of these proposed hypotheses in Qassimi Arabic binomials, the study adopts a quantitative analysis which has largely been adopted in relevant studies. The findings of the quantitative analysis of a big number of binomials (336 binomial pairs) indicate the satisfaction rates for the three hypotheses posited in the current study are statistically highly significant. Therefore, the study concludes that there is definite evidence for the factual existence of the short-before-long preference in Qassimi Arabic binomials, a finding which is compatible with similar studies in binomials in English and some other European languages.</em></p> Muhammad Swaileh Alzaidi Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Swaileh Alzaidi Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Incorporating Multiple Intelligences in L2 Writing Classes: New Horizons in Redefining the Classroom <p><em>This article seeks to restore the notion of the classroom in light of emerging pedagogies. It attempts to provide a sketchy introduction of the theory of multiple intelligences and its potential gains in ELT. Despite the variance of teaching methods and approaches implemented in classrooms, students’ results in some topics have remained below the par of teachers’ expectations. This article attempts to provide a solution to teaching students to their differences and learning preferences. It investigates the impacts of accommodating students’ intelligences profiles in writing classes. To fulfill this objective, 114 male and female participants majoring in English at the University of Kairouan were asked to write a five-paragraph essay and respond to a writing strategies questionnaire, a multiple intelligences inventory. The collected data were statistically analyzed using Pearson Correlation and ANOVA techniques to probe possible correlations and predictability levels between MI profiles and WS. The findings indicated that there is a significant degree of correlations between learners’ multiple intelligence profiles and the writing strategies they use when writing. As for the impacts of multiple intelligences on writing quality, the results revealed weak or no significant correlations. It is then suggested that the same study should be further elaborated within the same L2 context with larger population to acknowledge learners’ differences and learning preferences and benefit from new dimensions in teaching paradigms</em></p> <ul> <li>Chronic deterioration of learners results in different language topics</li> <li>The current upheaval caused by the striking pandemic </li> <li>Lack of homogeneity in the syllabi provided to university students</li> </ul> <p>For the above reasons, implementing the Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner 1983/1999) and Computer Assisted Language Learning at the university level classroom could boost the teaching/ learning and would reduce apprehension and foster learning achievements. So, knowing learners’ individual differences and preferences and integrating CALL in the classroom would allow teachers to establish “broad range of teaching strategies with their students” (Armstrong, 2009). Gardner (2006) also concludes that “people have very different kinds of minds… then education which treats everybody the same way, is actually the most unfair education”. Briefly, incorporating intelligences whether cognitive or artificial and recognizing the blended learning would revolutionize the notion of the classroom and reduce inconveniences between the teaching input and the learning output. Therefore, the new CLASSROOM would be effective, inspiring, and prospective.</p> Hatem Haddaji Copyright (c) 2022 Hatem Haddaji Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An In-depth Study of How Rahim Shah Learned to Speak English and Persian Better Than His Native Language: An Explanatory Case Study <p><em>This mixed-methods case study explores how Rahim Shah learned to speak English and Persian much more fluently than his native language (Pashto). In this study, different aspects of the subject- including his personality, language learning style, language learning history, oral and written language skills- are analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Accordingly, attempts have been made in this paper to enlighten his exposure to three languages, Pashto (native), Persian (second) and English (foreign). The results drew that he speaks Persian much more confident than his native language mainly because his parents moved to a Persian-speaking community when he was a child of three years old. This makes it clear that non-native speakers use their knowledge of the new language through interaction with others. The results also recovered that he learned how to speak English better than his native language mainly because he was intrinsically motivated, knowing the positive consequences of learning English. In addition to his high motivation, he consistently listened to native speakers as he spent three years with Americans. Therefore, this case study embraces nearly all the aspects of how Rahim Shah managed to speak English and Persian, and how he failed to speak his native language.</em></p> Ghulam Yahya Asghari, Rahimullah Ramish, Ali Akbar Zawuli Copyright (c) 2022 Ghulam Yahya Asghari, Rahimullah Ramish, Ali Akbar Zawuli Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Question-And-Answer Method in Teaching English Prepositions to Primary School Learners <p><em>Primary school education in South Africa is based on the premise that foreign language learners study English as First Additional Language. Although the ideal situation for acquiring any language is to live among native speakers, most learners are not exposed to native English speakers. As the teaching methods employed are governed by this principle, the question-and-answer method provides immediate feedback to teachers and enhances learners’ proficiency in English prepositions. The paper investigated if the question-and-answer method improves learners' proficiency in the learning of English prepositions of movement. Using a qualitative approach, the researchers interviewed and observed the teaching of English prepositions of movement by English First Additional Language teachers. Three rural Grade Six Lwamondo Primary school teachers in Limpopo Province, South Africa were sampled depending on the use of traditional teaching methods. The paper established that the question-and-answer method improved learners’ proficiency in the use of these English prepositions. However, learners were incompetent in a class where the teachers used the narrative method as no questions were answered at the end of the lesson. It can be concluded that the question-and-answer method is appropriate for teaching the English prepositions of movement to Grade Six learners in this regard.</em></p> Farisani Thomas Nephawe, Matodzi Nancy Lambani Copyright (c) 2022 farisani Thomas Nephawe, Matodzi Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Are Personality Traits in Harry Potter Novels Gender-Based? The Case of Harry, Ron and Hermione <p><em>Humans display several different attitudes towards others and towards the life situations and challenges they encounter. Gender is said to be a factor that can determine one’s likeability to show a certain attitude rather than another. Traditionally speaking, men are expected to act one way towards something, while women are expected to act in a different way towards the same thing. This paper aims to identify the extent to which the Harry Potter series abides by, or challenges, the traditional gender stereotypes of human attitudes and reactions. Thus, this paper should help to decide if the three main characters in Harry Potter: Harry, Ron and Hermione, are depicted, in terms of their personality traits, on the basis of traditional gender norms. On a wider scope, the paper aims to investigate the role that widely-read fiction, such as Harry Potter, plays to reinforce traditional ideas or to encourage more liberating views. To achieve these aims, the attitudes and reactions of the three major characters of the novels are to be analyzed. Two of these characters are male: Harry and Ron, while the third: Hermione, is female. The attitudes and reactions of these three characters are to be measured according to how much they take risks or follow the rules, how much they are caring and nurturing, rude, and persistent.</em></p> Shrouk Sultan, Basma Saleh, Asmaa ElSherbini Copyright (c) 2022 Shrouk Sultan, Basma Saleh, Asmaa ElSherbini Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Textual Analysis of Modality in the 2015 Matriculation Speech of Prof. W. O. Ellis <p><em>Speech presentation varies from political, religious, economic, and academic to social issues. Over the years, in academia, some research works have been carried out in various fields of speech presentation. However, studies on the modality in the speeches of educational leaders in Ghana are not pronounced. Consequently, this paper is a textual analysis of the mood choices deployed in the 2015 matriculation ceremony speech of Prof W. O. Ellis, who is one of the past vice-chancellors of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana. The matriculation ceremony was for the 2015/2016 graduate students in the Institute of Distance Learning (IDL), KNUST. With prior permission, the data (Vice Chancellor’s speech) was purposively selected from the University’s portal. The research design used for this study was qualitative. Accordingly, the speech (data) was analysed using the content analysis method. With this method, we identified the various mood structures, the conditions that necessitate a particular mood, and how the mood choices were interpreted manually. The findings showed that the mood choices used in the selected speech were declarative and imperative. Of these two mood choices, declarative was predominant (86%). However, the study revealed that interrogative mood was absent from the speech. The study recommends that, in the future, such speeches should include interrogative moods. The basis is that the interrogative moods (especially rhetorical questions) have the propensity of maintaining the interpersonal relationship between the speaker and the listener.</em></p> Nana Agyemang Opoku, Edward Owusu, Samuel Kyei Adoma, Asuamah Adade Yeboah, Solomon Ali Dansieh, Priscilla Appiah Copyright (c) 2022 Edward Owusu Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Terrestrial Horror or the Marriage between Horror Fiction and Cli-Fi: What the Language of Horror can Teach us about Climate Change <p><em>This paper focuses on the dystopian camp of climate fiction and its affinities with another fiction genre: horror. During cli-fi’s rise, horror has enjoyed a resurgence of popular interest and sustained and reinvigorated scholarly interest in the past few years. While horror and dystopian cli-fi have different roots and conceptual underpinnings, there are points of contact between the genres, when the horrible in horror fiction spawns from environmental collapse or when the climatic in cli-fi drives what horrifies. My central claim is that these contact points, the overlap between cli-fi and horror fiction, become critical research nodes for developing the necessary societal, cultural, and intellectual framework for living in a destroyed world. I suggest a label for the crossover between cli-fi and horror fiction: terrestrial horror. Analyzing multiple texts within this subgenre renders visible the societal, cultural, and intellectual changes necessary for the kinds of posthumanism needed in a destroyed world.</em></p> Jonathan Elmore Copyright (c) 2022 Jonathan Elmore Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Harmonization of Mythology into the Poetry of the Modern Poets: A Study on the Selected Poems of Yeats, Eliot and Auden <p><em>This research is an endeavour to explore the poetry of the three prevalent modern poets William Butler Yeats, Thomas Sterns Eliot and Wystan Hugh Auden, through the lenses of their harmonization of mythology. Though they belong to the modern period in English literature, they reference different types of myths as they teach us moral lessons and profound purpose, explain historical events and add creativity to literary pieces. This study searches for the reason why and how the poets incorporate the usage of mythology into their poetry. In this paper, the writer will allude to some of the lines of different poems of the three poets above. Through the reference of these poems, the reader will come to understand with what purpose the poets integrate the representation of mythology into their poems. Specifically, this research will focus on the poetry of the modern poets. These three poet depict their poems with mythology in their own way. They always try to deploy different myths into their poems as these are very meaningful and purposeful to our life still. Our selected three poets more or less experience both the WWI and WWII and the after effects of these two massive war make them to contemplate for the people, the country and the world. They ruminate on the contemporary devastative circumstances of the world. Through exhibiting various mythical allusions into their poetry, they attempt to rekindle peace and complacency all over the world. The researcher captures evidence from textual reference to support her opinion regarding the related issues. This paper attempts to expose the related reasons why and how the modern poets delineate mythology into their poetry.</em></p> JANNAT E HOSNE ARA Copyright (c) 2022 JANNAT E HOSNE ARA Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Feminist Perspective in Shashi Deshpande’s Selected Novels <p><em>No other woman novelist than Shashi Deshpande has been given accolades so greatly and accorded prominence and worldwide recognition for the projection of feminine sensibility in Indian English Literature. Her exploration of the female psyche by probing deep into the inner working of her mind is highly appreciated by the readers and greatly discussed among the researchers and critics. The novels of Shashi Deshpande are centred on women’s psyche to understand their urges and despairs in a better way. Her protagonists advocate for ‘A Room of One’s Own and proclaim their rights on their bodies. She has portrayed the characters unsatisfied with the uncongenial social conditions that confront their aspirations, needs, urges and hopes. So they conduct themselves in different ways displaying different attitudes and temperaments. These characters undergo a remarkable dynamism in their personalities, and display satisfactory development in their attitude and outlook regarding life. The authors in this research analysis have attempted to examine in depth the various feminist issues projected in her novels through the characters of the main protagonists: Indu of Roots and Shadows, Jaya of That Long Silence and Saru of The Dark Holds No Terrors.</em></p> Shree Om Sambharwal, Neetu Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Shree Om Sambharwal, Dr. Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Literature and Ecology: Promoting an Eco-Consciousness through Children Literature <p>T<em>he study scrutinises intermingled relations between children literature and some ecological issues. Such interwoven relationships would be highly recommended to encourage children to explore and identify themselves with nature from early ages to avoid facing an extreme experience later on. The research limits its scope to two novels Suzanne Collins’ (1962) The Hunger Games trilogy (2003-2007) and William Golding’s (1911-1993) Lord of the Flies (1954), and both novels have no direct connections with Ecology and the Eco-consciousness, yet it offers an insightful description about Man’s experience with Nature. Moreover, it raises serious moral questions, raises awareness, heals wounds and suggests solutions for the problems that are both cultural and physical about man’s interactions with nature. The study narrows its theoretical methodology to the thematic contents of literature rather than their form.</em></p> <p><em>Nevertheless, theories of ecocriticism such as Serpil Oppermann’s, Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm are to be mentioned due to their relevance to the main ideas mentioned in the research. The conclusion sums up that the environment is turned to be man’s collective problem rather than a mere didactic issue. This problem is referred to not only as a problem of nature, but also as social, psychological, and cultural problem that negatively affect all components of the earth. It is about a broad perspective which includes human as well as nonhuman nature.</em></p> Enas subhi Amer Copyright (c) 2022 Enas subhi Amer Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Challenges Faced by Novice Teachers of English for Medical Purposes (Emp): The Case of Saudi Arabia's Medical Colleges <p><em>The teachers of English for Medical Purposes (EMP) are faced with problems of lack of appropriate materials, professional support, low learner motivation and no provision of writing study module at medical colleges of Saudi Arabia. There is not enough study on these issues and researchers are quiet about addressing them. Understanding the new English for Medical Purposes teachers' challenges is of crucial importance to improve their performance and, accordingly, their students' performance. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges of the new EMP teachers in teaching medical English via exploring the present situation analysis (PSA). This study follows a qualitative approach to conduct an investigation through rigorous interview with five EMP teachers (Ts) and three medical professors (MP) who are the deans of different medical colleges of Saudi Arabia. Data were entered through Atlas ti. Software to be sorted and analyzed for findings which were presented in figures and graphs. The study has found that new EMP teachers face difficulties, such as, adjustment of the English words in the medical context, pronunciation, and the meaning of the medical terminology. They also face challenges such as English used for medical procedures, daily routine in medical institutions, communication with medical staff and patients. But there is hardly any help available for the new EMP teachers to cope with this situation. Pedagogical issues, such as, the methodology of ESP is another area the EMP teachers find it difficult to tackle it. The findings call for steps to find solutions for these challenges to improve the performance of EMP teachers and their students.</em></p> Hani Elgindi Eligindi, Mohammed Shamsul Hoque Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Shamsul Hoque, Dr. Eligindi Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Developing Creative Thinking Skills in EFL Classes in Morocco <p><em>The present paper reports on an evaluation study investigating the extent to which Moroccan EFL high school classrooms encourage the development of creative thinking skills. Our objectives were: to explore the extent to which educational policy documents, namely the National Charter for Education and Training (1999), the White Paper (2002) and the Guidelines for teaching English (2007) promote the development of creative thinking; to find out whether Ticket to English 2 textbook has the potential to support students to think creatively; to investigate teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards developing creative thinking and to discover insights into the nature of classroom environment with regard to the development of the skill. The study used a mixed methods design which involves a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The purpose behind this choice is to investigate the match between the aims and objectives outlined in educational policy documents and their implementation through the textbook and teaching practices. The study employed five research instruments namely documents analysis, textbook evaluation, questionnaires, classroom observation, and a semi-structured interview. The results revealed that the importance of creative thinking has been emphasized in policy documents, yet the textbook and teaching practices focus on lower-order thinking skills, such as remembering and understanding. The study concludes with practical recommendations for policy makers, textbook designers, teachers, and teacher development programs.</em></p> Zaina Smare, Mohamed Elfatihi Copyright (c) 2022 Zaina Smare, Mohamed Elfatihi Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000