International Journal of Language and Literary Studies <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> en-US (International Journal of Language and Literary Studies ) (Yasser Alrefaee) Mon, 06 May 2024 03:57:30 +0000 OJS 60 Vietnamese Speech Act Realization and Some Factors Influencing Refusal Strategies: A Pilot Study <p>The purpose of this pilot research was to explore the refusal strategies and factors influencing speech act realization of refusals employed by a group of Vietnamese language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers, and suggestions by 5 participants at Tien Giang University to shed light on the possible problems leading to cross-cultural differences in communication. A Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT) and 5 interview questions in English versions developed by the researcher were used to collect the data and analyze it qualitatively and quantitatively. The results illustrated that the participants frequently used indirect strategies for refusing each context given in the WDCT. Furthermore, based on the participants’ answers via the interview records, it could be concluded that social contexts, distance, and cross-cultural differences influenced L2 learners of English as a Foreign Language.&nbsp; The findings of this study highlight some strategies to help learners understand and gain more strategies in speech act realization of refusals and misunderstanding can be avoided. Besides, the interlocutors can receive appropriate responses to refusing invitations, requests, offers, and suggestions.</p> Tuyen Bui Copyright (c) 2024 Tuyen Bui Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 From Womb to Words: Unveiling the Changing Understanding of Hysteria <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>In ancient periods, there was the tendency to label a woman as mad or hysteric if she behaved in a strange manner. The reason was that, since at those times women were considered to be inferior creatures, their bodies were thought to be degraded easily. Accordingly, in the medieval period, hysteria was linked to distress in the womb, which would affect the whole body easily. In that sense, in this period hysteria was only associated with women. Especially ancient Greeks believed that hysteria occurred due to not having enough sex or orgasms. Therefore, according to them the cure for this ailment was getting married and having a satisfying sexual life. However, in the dark Middle Ages, hysteria started to be related to witchcraft, rather than sexual dissatisfaction. It was still linked to women only, but this time they were believed to be possessed by the Devil if they showed any disturbances or symptoms of hysteria. With the developments in science and technology, the understanding of hysteria changed from being associated with unfulfilled sexual drives or spirit possession to being a result of having psychological scars due to mental traumas or repressions. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to reflect the changing understanding of hysteria through female characters from 20<sup>th</sup> century American drama. </em></p> Sena Teber Copyright (c) 2024 sena teber Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Figurativeness and Humour in Covid-19-Related Internet Memes <p><em>When social dilemmas arise, people often turn to humour and pop culture to find answers. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic social networks flooded with internet memes. Internet memes are “a kind of modern folklore in which values are constructed through photoshopped images” (Shifman, 2014, p.14) and they often use figurative devices, being a genre of humour and creativity. The examination of internet memes can provide a way of understanding how people managed to cope with one of the most challenging crises of our times. This paper aims to analyse a series of COVID-19-related memes in order to show how the collectively lived experience of COVID-19 pandemic has been processed and perceived by social media users. To this end we collected and analysed internet memes created in 2020 with the aid of cinematography and whose captions are written in English. We also investigated factors that shaped people’s understandings of the memes. Our research focused on the analysis of the CONTAINER metaphor and orientational metaphors and also investigated the cognitive base of humour, that is, the incongruity “or incompatibility or contrast inside or between conceptual frames of knowledge – either figurative or literal” (Kovecses, 2015, p.135). In the current study we used both qualitative and quantitative methods which helped us interpret people’s perception of the metaphorical usage embedded in the Internet memes used in our research. Our findings lead us to conclude that in most interpretations of the memes the visual mode had a greater impact on the receivers and led them to a correct interpretation of the metaphors embedded.</em></p> Anca Irina Cighir Copyright (c) 2024 Anca Irina Cighir Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Foreign Language Anxiety: A Study on Spanish Learners <p><em>Foreign language anxiety (FLA) as a crucial affective variable has been unexplored in the context of the Spanish language. This paper reports a study that investigated Spanish language anxiety (SLA) and its potential causes and inquired into the relationship between the role of a teacher and SLA. A mixed-methods research design was adopted, including a questionnaire [Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS)], semi-structured interviews, and observation as data collection among the undergraduates (female = 32, male = 18) and Spanish teachers (2). The FLCAS data revealed that students experience low to moderate anxiety, with communication apprehension being highly rated (mean = 3.26) followed by fear of negative evaluation (mean = 2.8) and test anxiety (mean = 2.25). The interview data recorded listening and speaking tasks, fear of negative evaluation, teacher talk, negative self-comparison, and previous bad language learning experiences are the prominent sources of anxiety. In this context, Spanish teachers are found to reduce students' anxiety mostly by giving interesting activities, accepting students' mistakes, and using body language. This paper offers insight into the causes that trigger FLA and an impactful relationship between a teacher's role and FLA. Some suggestions are proposed for teachers based on the findings to mitigate students’ anxiety.</em></p> Moumita Akter Copyright (c) 2024 Moumita Akter Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Subtle Social Critique in Oliver Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer <p><em>Oliver Goldsmith’s, <strong>She Stoops to Conquer</strong> </em><em>has been one of the most popular comedies in England’s 18<sup>th</sup> Century. This is due to the dramatist’s witty usage of satire and humour as a means to ridicule and burlesque society’s vices, shortcomings and false manners of the age. Yet, as the research explains, the play’s comical effects extend far beyond mere social laughter and entertainment. The play in fact delivers subtle radical criticism with regard to important issues such as intergenerational conflicts, gender discrimination, and marriage. The main objective of Goldsmith’s subtle criticism is to revoke and debunks prejudices, misconceptions and false opinions about marriage and woman’s strife for selfhood in Eighteenth-Century England. The research is significant for it brings into focus the dramatist’s artistic techniques in delivering subtle criticism in the comedy of manners. </em></p> Kawa Othman.O.Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Kawa Othman.O.Ahmed Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sonority-Induced Vowel Deletion and Epenthesis in Bedouin Hijazi Arabic <p><em>This paper examined vowel deletion triggered by sonority in Bedouin Hijazi Arabic. Bedouin Hijazi Arabic has a number of predictable vowel deletion processes that are phonologically conditioned. However, the type of vowel deletion examined in this paper is restricted in its application. It is triggered by sonority levels between a consonant in an onset position and a preceding coda. It results in word-medial clusters, which can trigger vowel epenthesis governed by the sonority hierarchy in the dialect. The epenthetic vowel varies in quality based on adjacent segments. The interaction between vowel deletion and epenthesis is examined within Harmonic Serialism, HS, a derivational framework of Optimality Theory. Instead of vowel deletion and vowel insertion taking place at all once, HS stipulates that only a single harmonic element is added progressively in each step. The same constraint hierarchy is implemented in each step until the desired output is achieved.</em></p> Majed AL SOLAMI Copyright (c) 2024 Majed AL SOLAMI Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 When the Beautiful IS the Good: Towards Linguistic Revealing and the Fitting Order of Ethos in T.S Eliot’s “Four Quartets” <p><em>Outside the politics of environmental justice which imbue the world with false responsibility, the ontology of technological subjectivity masks a drive to deplete and subjugate. The question then becomes: how is it possible to be ecologically just knowing that nature is conceived as an organism? More so, how can language be ethically restorative whilst the relationship between the ‘word’ and the ‘thing’ is grounded on the logic of representation? The palimpsest of ontological subjectivity, arising from Platonic eidos and cascading to Nietzsche’s will to power, reproduces a hierarchical system. The purpose of this study is to administer a trenchant critique of ontology rather than merely engage in ecological compassion and political power games. This essay defends the argument that the poetic realm preserves the long-forgotten essence of nature as physis, chiefly as that which evades the technological worldview of objectification. Instead of locating the salvation of nature in the subjectivity of the romantic lyricist or the ecological moralist, dwelling poetically demands a form of linguistic revealing and an ethos of response that lets nature be. First, Eliot’s image of the ‘matrimonie’ allows earth to appear as a gathering force. Second, the ‘river’ gathers the ‘land’s edge’ and the ‘gods’ radiance’ around the precinct of natural guardianship. It so happens that Eliot’s depiction of nature exhorts human beings to live amid the sprouting of trees, the supporting of soil, and the streaming of the river. This restorative act advocates an incisive critique of technological logic and an avowal of meditative thinking.</em></p> Omar Hansali Copyright (c) 2024 Omar Hansali Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 On the Racialization of the Moroccan ‘Other’ in Orientalist Romance <p><em>T</em><em>his paper offers an understanding of the discourse of difference in relation to the themes of race and identity in Rebecca Stratton’s bestselling romance The Silken Cage. </em><em>It unravels how Morocco, as a subject and a culture, is racialized in British orientalist romance to underpin the discourse</em><em> of the centre/periphery duality in cross-cultural encounters.</em><em> The Silken Cage is worthy of study due to </em><em>its interest in how the Moroccan ‘Other’ is turned into a commodity in popular romance</em><em>. After a postcolonial analysis of the suggested romance, it was found that racial conceptions of the Moroccan Other’s identity are at large contingent on racial hierarchies. The novel seems, at first glance, to negotiate the construction of racial identities and thereby dismantle the system of binarism between the ‘Self’ and the ‘Other.’ However, the author’s </em><em>emphasis on the ambivalence of the oriental subjects articulates a continued need for racial sameness and the denial of difference. Needless to say, given that racial hybridity is a prerequisite for the courtship to be successful reveals that Stratton resists cross-cultural difference. It can be thus argued that Stratton’s romance is an interracial ground where racial differences are not welcomed to legitimize Western hegemony and domination over the Orient.</em></p> Abdelghani Moussaoui Copyright (c) 2024 Abdelghani Moussaoui Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Reimagining Feminism and Gender Relations in Saudi Arabia: A New Theoretical Framework <p><em>This article seeks a deeper understanding of the issues Arab women face in the Arab world and their rights. It is set in a framework that considers the context of these rights and issues. Whilst women throughout the Arab world often share similar experiences, there is variation, and this article focuses mainly on the experience of Saudi women. Theoretical feminist and interdisciplinary approaches analyse and highlight diverse perspectives in seeking a more profound understanding of women's rights, roles, status, challenges, and achievements. They also expose the various feminist paradigms underlying the theoretical framework. The study emphasises the importance of recognising the unique experiences of Arab women, respecting cultural differences, and avoiding universalisation and homogenisation of gender. It highlights the value of integrating feminist and postcolonial theoretical perspectives to comprehend better the complexities surrounding Saudi women's study. It also emphasises the contextualisation of literary works within local environments to provide a deep understanding of women's evolving roles, rights, and status contributions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Ultimately, the study aims to bridge the academic gap between English and Arabic scholarship in the representation of Saudi women.</em></p> Adel Musaylih Almuthaybiri Copyright (c) 2024 ADEL ALMUTHAYBIRI Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Using Print Media to Facilitate Luganda Language Teaching and Learning for Authentic Learning <p><em>Luganda language teachers in Uganda have promoted the use of traditional language teaching strategies which are characterised by the CCR (copy, cram and reproduce) practice. Whereas language instruction has greatly shifted from traditional language teaching approaches to modern ones, this has not been the case with Luganda language teaching. Within the context of this background and with the aim of addressing this issue, we conducted a qualitative study, using a participatory action research approach to explore how Luganda teachers could use communicative strategies with the support of a variety of print media to facilitate Luganda teaching and learning for authentic learning. This paper presents an overview of how participants planned lessons using diverse print media to facilitate Luganda teaching and learning for authentic learning. Data was collected through participant observation and focus group discussions (reflective sessions). The findings emerging from this study indicated that the use of print media to facilitate Luganda language teaching led to enhanced learner participation and critical engagement.</em></p> Edward Masembe, Logamurthie Athiemoolam, Nokhanyo Mdzanga Copyright (c) 2024 Logamurthie Athiemoolam, Dr, Prof Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Untold Stories behind Tearful Eyes in M.G. Vasanji’s ‘‘And Home Was Kariakoo: A Memoir of an Indian African’’ <p><em>Writing history about one’s own country is much easier than documenting the same diaspora in a foreign land. As it happened somewhere, most of their stories might go unnoticed, neglected or censored. It is the greatness of any writer to depict the antiquities with all possible facts without hurting the sentiments of the natives of those nations. One such genuine attempt was made by Indian-origin Tanzanian writer M.G.Vasanji. His memoir “And Home Was Kariako” is the best example for displaying us the predicament of the Indian diaspora on the Tanzanian soil. In this research we testify those alienations, migrations, dispossessions and ordeals of Indian migrants in East Africa are actualities which were little noticed by the rest of the world. To manifest those certitudes, the authors of the research referred number of other articles, books and visited some of the places which were mentioned by M.G. Vasanji in his book. We then wrapped up by canvassing Vasanji’s “And Home Was Kariakoo: A memoir by An Indian African” is a testimony to know the adversities of Asian aliens in East Africa.</em></p> VEERABABU Maridi, Jyothirmai Dakkumalla Copyright (c) 2024 VEERABABU Maridi, Professor D.Jyothirmai Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Lost Utopia in Palestinian Flash Fiction <p><em>The present study examines the use of dystopia as a device in Palestinian flash fiction composed by writers living in Israel. The study will look at three examples of flash fiction and investigate how dystopia is manifested in the stories' plot, characters and language, in an attempt to evaluate the relationship between the distorted reality that came into being after the war of 1948 and the social, political and economic effects it left. I therefore examined the themes which Palestinian writers have addressed in flash fiction and investigated their use of dystopia in order to express the state of crisis in which Palestinians inside Israel live, and how this affects the plot, the language and the characters. Our study shows that dystopia has been used in order to express the state of crisis in which individuals live and their inability to accept the psychological and economic damage left by the war, as reflected in the characters, who gradually lose their hope for a secure future.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> samah Saffuri khoury Copyright (c) 2024 samah Saffuri khoury Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Translation Theory: A Historical-Thematic Account <p><em>The main function of Translation Studies is to study issues of translation production and propose solutions for translation problems. Today, Translation Studies is an academic discipline that is gaining more recognition in the academic community. More than that many scholars of different backgrounds and fields of study like literature, history, anthropology, semiotics, and philosophy have been attracted by translation studies. This article is divided into three sections. The first section presents a brief history of Translation Studies. The second section discusses definitions and meanings of the word 'translation'. The third section analyses different theories of translation.</em></p> <p> </p> MOURAD EL KHATIBI Copyright (c) 2024 MOURAD EL KHATIBI Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Folktales of Bihar: A Study of the Animal Characters <p><em>Cultural elements in folktales can manifest through idiomatic expressions, metaphors, proverbs, or references to specific historical events or figures. Each of these elements holds significant cultural value, enriching the story and providing insights into the community's collective experiences and values. In India, folktales are cherished by millions for their entertainment and aesthetic value. These tales are typically passed down orally from one generation to the next, and in more recent times, they may also be found in written form. Folktales from different regions reflect the thoughts, traditions, and culture of their people, providing both entertainment and insight into their past and present customs. Bihar is one of the most important states of India, located in the eastern region of the country, and has a rich tradition of folk culture. We often observe the representation of animal characters in folktales. In the context of the folktales of Bihar, we can also observe the depiction of different types of animal beings. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the animals are represented in the context of folktales of Bihar. To undertake this study, we need to utilize the descriptive analysis approach. To undertake this study, we need to utilize the descriptive analysis approach.</em></p> Ashis Mahato, Nishant Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Nishant Singh, Ashis Mahato Sun, 19 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Stylistic Analysis of Francis Bacon’s Selected Essays <p><em>This paper is an attempt to analyze stylistically Bacon’s essays. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the writing style of Francis Bacon in the following selected essays (Of Studies, Of Revenge, OF Ambition, and Of Marriage and Single Live). Researchers analyzed the writing style of Bacon in these essays, specifically the aphoristic style. One of the most crucial characteristics of Bacon’s essays style is aphorism. It is a style which specified by the direct, straightforward, pithy and concise language. Apart from this, utilitarianism which is another feature of Bacon’s essay style, has been clarified clearly. Utilitarianism is a philosophy of thought that maintains and supports that the foremost actions are those that create the most happiness for the greatest number of people. In fact, researchers have found some elements regarding the selected essays such as didacticism, mannerism as well as worldly wisdom that introduce Francis Bacon as a utilitarian writer. Moreover, other crucial elements of Bacon’s essays such as quotations, impersonality, as well as paragraphs have been analyzed very briefly in this paper. Actually, this study is based on qualitative research. The research design was the textual analysis in order to analyze the text. The main instrument was the text of Francis Bacon’s selected essays. The data were in the form of lines, sentences, phrases and words. To analyze the text, the researchers have used steps such as paraphrasing, analyzing, identification and classification. Finally, the result of this study shows the writing style of Francis Bacon which is based on aphoristic, utilitarianism and other significant elements, like the usage of impressive quotations, unique paragraphs and Bacon’s objectivity regarding his essays.</em></p> Khaled Ahmad Sarwary, Zalmai Samsor Copyright (c) 2024 Khaled Ahmad Sarwary, Zalmai Samsor Sun, 19 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000