International Journal of Language and Literary Studies https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> en-US Sat, 04 Jun 2022 23:46:47 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Unfolding the Lived Experiences of the College Students’ Language Learning Strategies vis-à-vis their English Proficiency: A Convergent Design https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/805 <p><em>The study determined students’ language learning strategies (LLS) status and English proficiency (EP). A mixed-method, particularly the convergent design, was used. Through purposive sampling, 378 and 17 Education major in English students served as participants for the quantitative and qualitative strands. An adapted questionnaire for quantitative strand and interview guide for qualitative strand were used to gather the necessary data. The study revealed a high level of LLS and a low level of EP. The compensation strategy has a significant relationship to EP. Six themes unfolded as the lived experiences in learning English: sustaining interest amidst fear, looking through an uphill battle, experiences enrich communicative competence, courage to face adversities, igniting positive language learning, and translating excellence in multilingual contexts. Regarding the insights on the contribution of English LLS, five themes emerged: a window of opportunities, towering the students' lamp, guarding with a bulletproof vest, dreaded fires of mediocrity, and kindling brighter lamps through assistance. Moreover, the joint display of quantitative and qualitative findings yielded that students' LLS and their lived experiences are convergent when the merging function is employed; EP status and experiences are convergent when the merging function is employed. However, on the relationship of LLS on the EP of the students, the results show the merging functions as diverging. Further, only the compensation strategies have a significant relationship with the EP of the students.</em></p> PEDRO JR RAYMUNDE, Virgion H. Mamonong Copyright (c) 2022 PEDRO JR RAYMUNDE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/805 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 English Language Apprehension of Education Student: A Phenomenology https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/856 <p><em>Language Anxiety is acknowledged as an impediment in second language learning. In addressing the issue, this study aimed to explore the English language Apprehension among Education Students. This study utilized qualitative design using a phenomenological method involving one focus group discussion with 10 participants and in-depth interviews with eight informants from the College of Teacher Education at the University of Mindanao. The results of this study reveal that the apprehensions experienced by the participants are caused by being measured against a standard, being a laughingstock or a sorry spectacle, being unable to deliver the required performance, and dealing with their insecurities and self-doubt. In coping with the challenges, the participants engage in activities that provide needed exposure, reinforcement through reading and listening to exercises, and being open and positive. Also, they resort to withdrawal and disengagement. The implications of this study must be a well-established intervention program; also, students should improve their skills through constant practice and exposure to the language.</em></p> Imee Gail Valdellon, Ana Helena R. Lovitos Copyright (c) 2022 Imee Gail Valdellon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/856 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Moroccan University Students’ Intercultural Competence -Department of English Studies https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/862 <p><em>This article attempts to analyze the development of intercultural communicative competence in Moroccan universities to identify whether the pedagogy administered by teachers and educators caters to the intercultural competence goals and teaching objectives and whether students manage to develop their competencies over their undergraduate program. The researcher conducts questionnaires with 875 university students from three different English departments in three different universities and 40 observation classes. Besides, investigations are implemented on the curriculum content, the materials, and the teaching strategies involved in developing intercultural competence. Findings generated from data demonstrate that most Moroccan university students partly develop their intercultural competence from S2 to S6 on particular intercultural components, including attitudes, skills, and values. Conclusions attest that more efforts are to be considered by policymakers and educators to rethink the factors halting this development and design more advanced strategies and syllabi that contribute to the improvement of all intercultural components central to adequate and appropriate foreign communications.</em></p> Oumeima EL Hadri Copyright (c) 2022 Oumeima EL Hadri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/862 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Tracy Letts’ August: Osage County as a Paradigm of Bad Parenting https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/901 <p><em>One’s character is shaped by the family he/she has and the way he/she is raised up. Bad parents affect their children tragically, and the later consequences, the parents are the ones who pay for being bad ones. Tracy Letts explores the dark side of family life in his domestic play August: Osage County (2007), one of the most well-known contemporary plays of American theatre in the twenty-first century. The playwright presents the Westons as an embodiment of the image of family disconnected relationships due to bad parenting. Violet is a model of a bad mother who plays a prominent role in destroying her family. The impact of bad parenting is revealed in the circle of the formerly abused children who turned to be abusers of their children or the search for love and care in the others as an alternative to the parent image. This paper examines the reasons for being bad parents concerning Violet in particular and the psychological effects of her aggressive behavior and insufficient care for her three daughters. The importance of the study lies in demonstrating the shape of the characters of the daughters in facing the challenges of life.</em></p> Marwa Ghazi Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Marwa Ghazi Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/901 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Use of Google Meet and Face-to-Face in Teaching Conversation https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/903 <p><em>Conversation is an oral skill in which two persons can exchange their ideas, thoughts and opinions to communicate with each other. Learners can work in pairs or groups to practice dialogues chosen by the teacher from their textbook materials or from additional resources. Nowadays, because of Corona virus infection, our college students are taught all the subjects including conversation course either via google classroom platform or any other platforms. Google meet is one of online meetings between the teacher and students, i.e., a video meet in which students and the teacher join the online meetings in a specified time to communicate, express their ideas, thoughts and feelings about what is mentioned above. In this study, the researcher has chosen (third stage level/college students during the academic year 2020/2021) and the data of the study was two dialogues chosen from “Chris Redston and Gillie Cunningham Face2face Intermediate Student's Book. Cambridge University Press (2013)” to study by google meet. Another two dialogues were chosen from their required textbook Real Listening and Speaking 4 with Answers. Miles Craven (2008). Cambridge University Press to study by face to face. One group of thirty-two students was chosen randomly to be the experimental group for the sample of the study to practice the dialogues via face- to- face and via google meet. This group post-tested by an observation checklist; results are calculated. At the end, the researcher concludes google meet has a great influence on students’ learning in the post-test scores, the t-test value is found to be 20.320 which is more than the tabulated value 2.042. Then, recommendations and suggestions for further studies are put forward.</em></p> Maysaa Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Maysaa Rashid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/903 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Deixis in Moroccan Tachelhit Variety https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/906 <p><em>This paper investigates spatial deixis in Moroccan Tachelhit Variety. Deixis is a word of Greek origin which means ‘pointing.’ The paper explores the means that Tachelhit offers its speakers for spatial deictic reference, an important pragmatic aspect that linguists of Tachelhit have not heeded to. Tachelhit has a rich spatial deictic system which is thus categorized into: Demonstratives, Adverbs of Place, Prepositions, Motion Verbs, and Presentatives. Tachelhit has a four-term spatial deictic system which changes according to the interplay of gender, proximity, distance, and absence. The paper also discovers that Tachelhit is a language that benefits from spatial deictic iconicity. The two major data collection methods that were used in this qualitative paper are content analysis and elicitation technique. Some examples from other languages (English, Latin, Turkish, Indonesian, Bantu, and French) are provided for cross-linguistic comparison and instantiation.</em></p> Youness Boussaid Copyright (c) 2022 Youness Boussaid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/906 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Cognitive Framework in Learning English Progressive Tense https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/924 <p><em>Dealing with the English language and the skills of using it is still the focus of interest for many researchers, teachers and workers in the field of education. Cognitive grammar theory founded by Langacker (1987) is one of the prominent theories in this field. Iraqi students face a problem in mastering and understanding the use of the English language tenses. There are a lot of researches that have been conducted in the Iraqi context to improve the level of Iraqi students and to benefit from cognitive theory such as analysing the polysemy of English preposition. This research is an empirical study in which 85 students from the College of Education for Women at the University of Baghdad, English department participated in this experiment. The data were collected through two tests, pre and post, and the SPSS statistical editor was used to measure the extent of improvement in the participants' performance, in addition to a focus group discussion and questionnaire before and after the experiment. The results showed an improvement in the students’ achievement. This indicates that the cognitive grammar theory has positive contributions in improving the understanding, assimilation and use of tenses in the English as a foreign language.</em></p> Raghad Fahmi Aajami Copyright (c) 2022 Raghad Fahmi Aajami https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/924 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Forensic Linguistic Analysis of Modality on Prosecutors’ Resolutions https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/933 <p><em>Prosecutors are individuals assigned to resolve cases filed on courts. Their abilities to make keenly decisions provided a wide spectrum on the world of forensic linguistics. This study aimed at identifying the types of modals used and their functions in the prosecutors’ resolutions of different cases. Further, this forensic linguistic analysis determined the frequency of overused and misused modals. Anchored on the premise of Palmer (2001) on the types and functions of modals, this study found that the common speculative modality is -may. Deductive modality included modals such as -shall, -must, -would, -may, and -could. As appeared, modal -could was categorized under the reported modality. Permissives were -can, -cannot, -will, -would, and -must. Modals were used to predict, give the possibility, capability, and permission, necessity, requirement, and prescription. The modal -would appeared 14 times among the prosecutors’ resolutions. Implications for legal parlance and educational milieu were presented.</em></p> Jerson Catoto Copyright (c) 2022 Jerson Catoto https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/933 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Practices and Problems of Teaching English Grammar to the Young EFL Learners https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/937 <p><em>English is the most widely used language (lingua franca) which is taught from primary to tertiary levels of education in Bangladesh education system. The secondary level is very much important for the young EFL learners to learn English language, especially grammar, as it prepares them and builds their foundation for the next levels of education. However, this study attempts to assess the practices and problems of teaching English grammar in our country, especially the teaching approaches and techniques, the roles of teacher and learners, the perception of needs of English grammar, the learners’ preferences about the learning strategies etc. The data, which was collected through the teacher and student questionnaire, interviews of the teachers and classroom observations, has unveiled the problems in teaching English grammar to the students of class IX-X. The findings of the study suggest that the teachers prefer applying the memorization techniques rather than the communicative approach. It suggests specific measures to solve the problems of teaching grammar at the end of the paper.</em></p> Saleh Ahmad, Maimana Rezwana, Md. Delowar Hossain Copyright (c) 2022 Saleh Ahmad, Maimana Rezwana, Md. Delowar Hossain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/937 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Essay Assessment toward Determining the Writing Proficiency Level of STEM, HUMSS, and ABM Twelfth Graders https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/943 <p><em>This descriptive- quantitative study is attached to the principles of Process and Product, and Error Analysis Approaches. Its ultimate aim is to identify the writing proficiency level of students enrolled in STEM, HUMSS, and ABM K-12 tracks. Significant differences among the three groups were also ascertained. In doing so, 75 Grade 12 students with 25 students from each of the three tracks took part who were tasked to develop an essay on a given topic. The evaluation was guided by the rubrics introduced by Robitaille and Connelly (2002) and its foci revolved on five components that include content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics Participation of two inter- raters was also be sought. The written outputs’ assessment revealed that with regard to content and organization, the three groups recorded a good to average writing proficiency level. The vocabulary proficiency noted down a fair to poor remark for STEM students, whereas good to average description was obtained by HUMSS and ABM students. Further, regarding language use, both STEM and ABM students have fair to poor adeptness, while HUMSS group was good to average. As to mechanics component, HUMSS students documented an excellent to very good proficiency while STEM and ABM students’ status is fair to poor. Overall, there is a significant difference among or within the three groups</em></p> Richard Agbayani Copyright (c) 2022 Richard Agbayani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/943 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Revealing Representation of China and America by the Media of CNBC Indonesia Relating to South China Sea Conflict https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/939 <p><em>In reporting conflict between countries, media was never possible to present completely neutral, accurate and full picture of the issues, instead it offered representations through language. This study aimed to reveal the representation of China and USA in coverage of SCSC by CNBC Indonesia. The research data were text excerpts of the reports (words, phrases, and sentences) which interpretatively constructed the media's representation. Data analysis was carried out descriptive-critically using Fairclough critical discourse analysis (CDA) model to describe the utilization of linguistic features (word choice, transitivity, modality, and rhetoric trope) in constructing representation of the story. The results showed that there was polarity representation of participants, actions, and events. The negative representation was labeled for China; conversely, positive representation was embedded for USA. In addition, it could also be interpreted that the media representation was influenced by the situational context of media institutions in selecting and organizing their news and the socio-political context, which gave rise to the choice of representation in reporting the SCS conflict.</em></p> Sukarno Sukarno Copyright (c) 2022 Sukarno Sukarno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/939 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ecofeminist Issues in Helon Habila’s Novel Oil on Water https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/806 <p><em>The purpose of this article is to examine ecofeminist issues in Helon Habila’s Oil on Water. Ecofeminism literary criticism was used to analyze the novel. Thus, based on the analysis made, the novel Oil on Water has various ecofeminist issues. Primarily, it mirrors the serious destruction of the natural environment in the Niger Delta. Because of this destruction, the ecosystem is in grave danger, and the annihilation of human and non-human beings is extensively portrayed in the novel. On the other hand, there is no clean environment including water in the Niger Delta due to oil spillage, no fresh air due to burning oil, and no peace due to the ongoing war. As a result, women, children, and indigenous peoples are forced to live in such a hostile environment. Furthermore, many living organisms become extinct as a result of oil companies' contamination of the environment, which destroys their habitat. Rivers become contaminated, trees and vegetation dry up, fish and birds die, humans perish, and many people abandon their homes and are displaced on a regular basis. Finally, the novel depicts patriarchal dominance, environmental exploitation, and violations of indigenous peoples and women.</em></p> Ngusse Michael, Abiye Daniel Copyright (c) 2022 Ngusse Michael, Abiye Daniel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/806 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 African Languages Development in Education -Bilingualism and African Languages https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/893 <p><em>The issue of teaching in the mother tongue has generated significant and controversial debates among decision-makers and has engendered different policies aiming to enhance the use of mother tongues into educational curricula. Africa is a perfect illustration of a continent where mother tongues have been marginalized over years to let the place to foreign and colonial languages to expand and become official languages.This article reviews the current situation of African languages as means of instruction and provides some anticipation for the use of mother tongues in educational systems designed in future national strategic plans. The study of these plans has been conducted in order to examine whether African countries have been able to achieve the significant resolutions derived from the UNESCO conference in 1953 and whether they apply bilingual approaches properly without ignoring the importance of mother tongues. Results have demonstrated that most African countries have been able to use their own mother tongue as the language of instruction together with a foreign language, and seek to adopt the same strategy in the coming years. Few countries on the other hand plan to change from using the mother tongue into applying one foreign language only. </em></p> Oumeima EL Hadri Copyright (c) 2022 Oumeima EL Hadri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/893 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mimesis in Emily Dickinson’s Select Poems: A Mirror Through Realities https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/877 <p><em>This paper aims to reveal the acceptance of life’s realities as expressed by the poet in her select poems through the lens of the mimetic theory of Rene Girard. Specifically, the mimetic significations are analyzed through each poem’s poetic vision. The literary study is a qualitative descriptive, it employs closed reading and content analysis methods to determine the poetic visions of the select poems: “Hope” is the thing with feathers,” “Because I could not stop for Death,” “If I can stop one heart from breaking,” and “I’m Nobody! Who Are You?” The analysis of poetic visions reveals that hope remains despite life’s struggles and difficulties; the acceptance of death is an eternity of living; compassion is a language of love, and fame brings complexity to life.</em></p> WEENA MAE AMPO Copyright (c) 2022 WEENA MAE AMPO https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/877 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 State of Being Sane and Insane -Stylistic Analysis of the short story “The Tell-Tale Heart” https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/886 <p><em>This paper aims to analyze the short story “The Tell-Tale Heart “by using stylistic analysis to explore the narrator’s outward and inward world. Moreover, the analysis attempts to show the clash between the narrator’s state of being sane and insane . Since stylistic is considered as an important approach to explain the relation between language and its artistic function. The implicit and explicit state of the narrator’s behavior is deeply shown during the analysis of by focusing on transitivity, revelation of material pursuit of him and the characters in the story which have created foreground the narrator’s psychological disease . The use of parallel structure and the transitivity of material process , mental process strengthen and highlight the narrator’s abnormal behavior and contradicted treatment of the old man and having “vulture’s eye’’ as a base of the narrator’s obsession which made him moving stealthily many times during nearly the whole the story’s actions to get rid of his victim.</em></p> Mohamed Abdrhaman Ahamed Yousef Copyright (c) 2022 Mohamed Yousef https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/886 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reading on Screen Vs Print: An Investigation into the Attitudes of Moroccan EFL University Students https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/931 <p><em>This study was conducted with the objective to explore University students' attitudes toward onscreen reading and the factors affecting their attitudes. A descriptive survey was used in this study as a data collection tool. The questionnaire results of 212 students belonging to Ibn Zohr University, Faculty of art and humanities, have asserted that Moroccan EFL university students have positive attitudes toward onscreen reading. However, the participants also revealed several negative factors that make their onscreen reading experience challenging and troublesome. Overall, this study revealed five positive and negative factors affecting students' attitudes toward onscreen and print reading. These include practical factors, psychological factors, economic factors, cognitive factors, and health factors. The pedagogical implications discussed in this study are valuable and worth considering by students, teachers, decision-makers, and curriculum designers.</em></p> omar TAKY-EDDINE, Redouane Madaoui Copyright (c) 2022 omar TAKY-EDDINE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/931 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 English Language Use by Saudi Female Students in Higher Education: Insights for Educators and Policymakers https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/885 <p><em>Saudi higher education recognizes the importance of teaching and learning the English language, leading to the establishment of several academic English departments to fulfill national needs. Mastery of English in an EFL (English as a foreign language) context requires more frequent language use, both inside and outside the classroom domain. Current research suggests that investigations into Saudi students’ English language use inside the classroom have been addressed, but outside its boundaries and at the department level have yet to be addressed. This study aimed to address that gap to provide insights into female learners’ perspectives on the Saudi EFL learning environment. It adopted a mixed-methods approach for data collection. A seven-item survey with an open-ended section was filled out by Saudi female students (n = 381) studying in English departments nationwide. Additionally, semi-structured interviews with two questions were conducted with BA and MA English students (n = 10). The findings reveal the failure of Saudi English departments to provide students with the English practice opportunities they need and learners’ dissatisfaction with the current learning environment. The implications of the study include the urgent need for decision-makers to intervene and change the current status quo.</em></p> Nura Almohaimeed, Suliman Alnasser Copyright (c) 2022 Nura Almohaimeed, Suliman Alnasser https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/885 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Promoting Quality, Equality and Inclusion through Rethinking Mediums of Instruction in Moroccan Public Schools https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/935 <p><em>The multi-linguistic nature of Moroccan society entails the existence of different languages such as Moroccan Arabic, Amazigh Language with its varieties, Standard Arabic, French, and English. From this group, the Moroccan education system opts for two main languages as official mediums of instruction: standard Arabic and French; Arabic starting from the first level in primary school and French beginning from the first year in secondary school. This state of fact challenges the notions of inclusion and equality in the Moroccan education system. Students are being taught in languages different from their mother tongues. The focal objective of this paper is to prove that the gap between the languages used at school and students’ home languages harms the students’ learning outcomes, integration, self-esteem, and self-confidence. To test the validity of this claim, the paper uses a mixed-method approach; a questionnaire is addressed to 200 high school science students to investigate how the absence of their home languages affects their learning outcomes, participation in classroom activities, self-esteem, and self-confidence. In addition, 20 high school teachers are interviewed to detect the negative impact of the mediums of instruction on the students’ learning outcomes, participation in the classroom activities, self-esteem, and self-confidence. Findings reveal that languages of instruction form a real hindrance to guaranteeing quality education for students. All the teachers’ interviewed confirmed that using the official mediums of instruction in the classroom hampers students’ performances and affects their results.</em></p> Abderazaq ICHOU, Said FATHI Copyright (c) 2022 Abderazaq ICHOU, Prof. Said FATHI https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/935 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is Universal Grammar Available To L2 Learners? https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/905 <p><em>Nativist argues that Universal Grammar is the genetic component of the language faculty. This theoretical concept is controversial in many aspects. The lack of strong empirical evidence has rendered some language researchers and teachers troubled about what Universal Grammar is and whether L2 learners have access to UG. Understanding the different aspects of UG would assist teachers in approaching teaching L2 learners in the light of UG theory. The present review paper provides a brief account of what UG is and critically investigates the hypotheses and arguments for and against UG to give a comprehensive answer to the question: is universal grammar available to L2 learners? A myriad of hypotheses have been put forward to answer this question. These range from those that suggest that L2 learners have full access to UG in that learners can reset their parameters to conform to L2 parameters to those that suggest that L2 learners only have partial access to UG. Apart from these accounts, others argue that learners acquire L2 using general domain skills rather than direct access to UG. Still, others assert that L2 learners only have access to UG via L1.</em></p> Youness Boussaid Copyright (c) 2022 Youness Boussaid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/905 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fighters or Victims: Women at War as Depicted in Harry Potter Novels https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/938 <p><em>Witches in Harry Potter novels play major roles that affect the course of events. Some of these witches are authority figures in institutions, while others can be housewives, aurors, ministry employees, or talented witches. This paper discusses several different witches who take part, intentionally or not, in the battle between good and evil in Harry Potter novels. Three of these witches will be tackled in terms of their roles as fighters, while three others will be tackled in terms of their degradation into victims. This analysis will be done through the investigation of the attitudes of the characters towards themselves and their positions, as well as the surrounding characters’ reception of the selected characters, and carefully reading the events of the seven Harry Potter novels. Because Harry Potter novels are widely-read, the depiction of female characters in these novels as either fighters or victims impact readers’ perception of women’s roles in their communities. Analyzing the female characters, this paper intends to help readers to realize if Harry Potter novels help to empower women or limit their potentials. Since women issues are an important part of our lives, and since Harry Potter novels are widely-read, finding out whether these novels empower women or limit their potentials is crucial to our understanding of the major impact that fiction can have on people’s lives.</em></p> Shrouk Sultan, Basma Saleh, Asmaa ElSherbini Copyright (c) 2022 Shrouk Sultan, Basma Saleh, Asmaa ElSherbini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/938 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers' Instructional Approaches in Teaching Literary Texts in an ESL Classroom: Learners' Impressions at Core https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/948 <p><em>This study was conducted to examine the challenges of the learners on the instructional approaches employed by their English teachers in teaching literary texts. It also sought the impressions of the learners towards these instructional approaches and practices. The study employed qualitative realistic phenomenology as design and utilized researcher-made probing questions to elicit responses from the participants. Using In-Depth Interviews (IDI) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) among the learners with Framework Method as the unit of analysis on the responses, the researcher found several themes that emerged and were categorically charted respectively. The challenges hindered learners from learning and appreciating literary texts. It also revealed the favorable impressions of the learners on the instructional approaches and practices of the teachers upon evaluating the teachers' approaches. With the study's limitations, it was recommended to investigate other lived realities of the learners to bank new knowledge and practices in literature education.</em></p> John Achileeus Benonguil, Jeremy Barnido Copyright (c) 2022 John Achileeus Benonguil, Jeremy Barnido https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/948 Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Reflective Writing in Fostering EFL High School Students Self-Regulation https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/955 <p><em>Self-regulation is a key skill to scholastic achievement and independent and sustainable learning. Unfortunately, not all EFL students display higher self-regulation skills in their learning. To address this problem, a reflective writing strategy was proposed to help these students develop their full potential in self-regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the role of engaging EFL students in reflective learning journals in cultivating their language-learning self-regulation skills. To this end, a mixed design was used. A convenience sample of 28 EFL students enrolled in first-year baccalaureate consented to participate in this study. They were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Reflective learning journals were used to collect data about students’ self-regulation. Findings demonstrated that after using reflective learning journals, the experimental group had significantly developed self-regulation compared to the control group who used traditional essays. Also, a statistically significant change over time in the experimental group self-regulation skills was observed. Therefore, as it can be inferred, reflective writing is an effective tool which could be used to build students’ self-regulation skills. Accordingly, the results of this present study encourage the adoption of a reflective pedagogy to stimulate EFL high school students’ self-regulation skills.</em></p> Nawal Abrouq Copyright (c) 2022 Nawal Abrouq https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/955 Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnolinguistic Vitality of Manide Tribe: Basis for Proposing Educational Material Plan https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/932 <p><em>This study determined the vitality of the language of Manide and the practices they observe to preserve it. This study utilized the descriptive research method. A semi-structured interview was conducted using the Indicators of Ethnolinguistic Vitality Review and Score Sheet as a survey checklist for 20 elders, adults, and youth Manide respondents. The data gathered were transcribed and thematically analyzed through manual Vivo coding. Results revealed that although more tribe members comprised of youth, adults and elders are inclined to use their language in day-to-day conversation, there are factors that caused them to shift to Tagalog; thus, based on Indicators of Ethnolinguistic Vitality (IEV), there is a probable shift in process in their language. Further, maintaining the use of language and shifting only when the needs arise, Documenting songs in Manide with translations in Tagalog, Creating Manide pieces for performances during events, and Teaching the Tradition to the young generation are four the disclosed practices they observe to maintain their language. Although these posited practices were found to help maintain the viability of the Manide language, there is still a need to create tangible support to preserve it against the identified threats. Consequently, out of the analysis of the current language status, an Educational material plan has been crafted with the concepts: Language exposure, Literary piece creation, Generational transmission of tradition, and Education continuum as its main components. These generated language preservation concepts are believed to be an initial step to protecting the Manide language of the tribe.</em></p> Delma Jean V. Abad, Eduardo M. Abad Copyright (c) 2022 DELMA JEAN and EDUARDO ABAD https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/932 Mon, 13 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Public Relations: A Tool for Scaffolding Effective Communication Between Moroccan University Professors and Higher Education Administrators https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/944 <p><em>The present study investigates how Public Relations can upgrade effective communication between university professors and higher education administrators. The data was collected through a questionnaire handed out to 135 Moroccan university professors and administrators operating in more than 10 Moroccan public higher institutions. This study aims to show the importance of public relations communication as a propitious tool conducive to quality in higher education. The results of this study corroborate that the Moroccan university professors ’interaction with higher education administration is mainly compatible with some elements of public relations communication. The results also show that Moroccan university professors and higher education administrators are aware of the positive impact of effective communication on the university’s reputation and the good functioning of the teaching and scientific research at the tertiary level. The findings also reveal some aspects that hinder effective communication between university professors and administrators.</em></p> SAD ACHAARI Copyright (c) 2022 SAD ACHAARI https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/944 Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Literary Critique of the Ecological Themes of the Selected Talaandig Lyric Poems https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/882 <p><em>Guided by the principles of eco-criticism, this study examines the ecological themes of environment in the five selected Talaandig lyric poems. In this qualitative ecological study, three objectives are administered, namely: a) delineating the themes of the environment in the selected Talaandig lyric poems; b) determining the various literary devices delineated by the writer/composer of the selected Talaandig lyric poems to develop the themes on the environment, and c) offering a teaching guide design model as to how an eco-criticism be done. Results of the study show that the five (5) lyric poems of Waway Saway II depict environmental awareness and concern, which had grown within him during his close contact with the natural environment since childhood. On the other hand, the five Talaandig lyric poems have the following delineated ecological themes on the environment: a) Nature is man’s life, b) Man has to be sensible and responsible towards nature, c) Human activities bear a significant impact on the environment, d) People’s sustainability depends on nature, e) Connection to the environment needs to be restored, f) Relationship between people and nature are becoming weaker, g) Man’s feelings towards the environment depends on their personal experiences on it, and h) Understanding how people are connected with nature is essential in ones dealing with the environment. Also, the five (5) lyric poems of Waway Saway II have used literary devices such as metaphor and symbol to delineate the ecological themes in the environment. Finally, the offshoot of this study which is the teaching guide design model, serves as a response to the call for environmental literacy and UNESCO’s sustainable environment, CHED curriculum guide, and Senior High School’s core subject, 21<sup>st</sup>-century literature from the Philippines and the World. Teachers and students are hoped to become eco-conscious, responding to the skills and competencies needed in framing a solution to the posed environmental threats and thereby engaging oneself in sustaining the natural environment.</em></p> Beverly Galorport Pebria-Taga Copyright (c) 2022 Beverly Taga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/882 Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000