International Journal of Language and Literary Studies <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> Tawasul International Centre for publishing, Research and Dialogue en-US International Journal of Language and Literary Studies 2704-5528 The Semiotics of the Peace Rituals (Pomaas Atag to Kosunayan) of Obo Manobo People <p>This study looked into the meanings of objects used in peace ritual, how these objects communicate the intention of parties involved, and how the ritual constitutes ideology on peace among the Obo Manobo people. Particularly, it is a semiotic reading of the Obo Manobo’s ritual for peace which employed Halliday’s social and functional approach to language and Lemke’s semiotic thinking. The peace ritual is found to be a semiotic system that embodies the values, symbols, and ideas of the Obo Manobos as a group. It is a multimodal communicative event that comprises various integrating elements to language, thoughts, feelings and aspirations, dramatizes collective representations, encodes the culture of the Obo Manobos and, therefore, conveys ideologies on peace. As embedded in the ritual, the Obo Manobos believe that peace is consequential effect of how they observe customary laws of the tribe, and disregarding this will result to punishment and chaos.</p> Estella Barbosa Copyright (c) 2022 Estella Barbosa 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 1 18 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.622 The Language of Suicide Notes: A Corpus-based Stylistic Analysis <p>This study aimed to contribute to the literature of suicide notes studies, especially those who are mainly interested in analyzing the content of suicide notes and the stylistics studies intended to extract the linguistics features of a particular text/corpus. It was designed to investigate and compare a set of linguistics stylistic features of a collection of suicide notes collected by Shneidman and Farberow in 1957 and a collection of suicide notes posted on an online website (Reddit) in 2018-2020. This study aimed to examine whether there is any change in the language of suicide notes between these two collections of data due to the different periods of time and medium (the first collection includes written suicide notes while the second includes posted online suicide notes). So, to achieve the aim of the study, two types of corpora were compiled, one dedicated to Shneidman and Farberow’s collection of suicide notes (1957) and the second for the online suicide notes (2018-2020). The two corpora were examined for their most frequent POS, distribution of content words, TTR, and words and sentences’ length. The analysis was conducted using CLAWS (UCREL, 2020), “the Constituent Likelihood Automatic Word-tagging System” for part-of-speech tagging, and WordSmith 8.0 software (Scott, 2020). Such analysis indicated that: both types employed an informal style of writing, but the words and sentences used in OSN tend to be longer and more complicated than those in SSN. Both corpora had lower TTR and STTR, which indicated that they were not lexically diverse. Their words were highly repetitive because they concentrated on one or two themes only. Finally, concerning content word distributions, the verbs were the most frequent type, followed by nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs.</p> Haya Abdul Al Salam Jassim Eman Adil Jaafar Copyright (c) 2022 Haya Abdul Al Salam Jassim, Eman Adil Jaafar 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 19 32 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.715 A Clash of Worlds: A Stylistic Analysis of Imrana’s ‘Imagine Say’ <p>The study explores creativity and innovation in the song (music video) ‘Imagine Say,’ by Imrana, a young Ghanaian musician. Adopting various theories and principles of Stylistics, the study identifies such creativity and innovation as parallelism, deviation, contrast, and other figures of speech, and what they foreground, in order to examine how effectively they contribute to the overall meaning and message of the song. The result indicates that the artiste adopts multimodality to express the meaning and message of the song. The diction, background scenes and chorus, sound effects, personification, repetition Parallelism, deviation, metaphor, and other figures of speech highlight the theme and meaning of the song, and thus help the audience to get the message – Discrimination and injustice against those who come from the streets (the poor and vulnerable) must cease. It is not by choice that they come from the streets; coming from the street does not make one a criminal; if any street person can be charged for any crime s/he must be given a fair hearing at a court of competent jurisdiction, rather than subjecting him/her to mob/instant justice.</p> Isaac Danquah Darko Daniel Afrifa-Yamoah Charles Djorbua Clementia Danquah Darko Copyright (c) 2022 Isaac Danquah Darko, Daniel Afrifa-Yamoah, Charles Djorbua, Clementia Danquah Darko 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 33 40 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.727 Solidarity in Times of Crisis <p>The concept of solidarity is certainly one of the most challenging among the concepts forming the constellation of social and political thought. Not only because of its use in a variety of discourses, but also because it is one of the most influential concepts despite the fact that it is still undertheorized. At the heart of the complexity is the ambiguity between the normative and descriptive usages of the concept. It seems that this ambiguity is clearly reflected in this time of Covid-19 pandemic which has revealed that both individuals and nations can demonstrate both solidary and anti-solidary actions simultaneously. This paper is an attempt to understand these contradictory conducts in the light of the history and development of the concept. Thus, the following questions are addressed: First, at a macro level, why do many countries behave towards each other in an anti-solidary manner? Second, why do individuals, despite their denomination and learning show a lack of solidarity towards the most unfortunate people? Solidarity ethics appears in religious, philosophical, and humanitarian discourses, so, what makes these discourses extremely ineffective in times when solidarity is most needed?</p> Amina Boutabia Copyright (c) 2021 Amina Boutabia 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 41 51 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.788 The Role of Portfolio Assessment in Enhancing the Moroccan EFL Students’ Writing Self-concept <p>Since the birth of humanistic approaches to language teaching and learning, researchers and practitioners directed special attention to various psychological factors that interfere with students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of portfolio-based assessment practices in enhancing students’ writing self-concept. The study further explores the students’ perceptions of portfolio assessment in relation to their writing self-concept. To achieve these objectives, the study relied on a mixed-method research design with a sample of two independent groups (classes) of high school students. One group followed portfolio-based writing assessment activities with various reflection techniques, while the other group stuck to the regular summative-based writing tests. The results indicate a statistically significant difference (p&lt;.005) between the two groups' level of writing self-concept in favor of the portfolio assessment group. The results also reveal a gradual, though statistically non-significant, improvement in the portfolio assessment group students’ writing self-concept compared to that of the traditional assessment group. On the other hand, the majority of the participants were highly positive about portfolio assessment and its impact on their writing self-concept.</p> Elmostafa omarakly Youssef Tamer Copyright (c) 2022 Elmostafa omarakly, Youssef Tamer 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 52 65 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.800 Teachers’ Level of Knowledge of Reading and Content Area Reading Instruction <p>The content area teachers' competencies were determined using a descriptive research methodology based on their level of knowledge of the nature of reading and content area reading instruction. Data were collected using the Assessment Tool on Teachers' Level of Knowledge of the Nature of Reading and Content Area Reading Instruction. To enhance the answers acquired from the survey questionnaire, unstructured interviews were used. Frequency count and mean were used to evaluate and interpret data gathered from teacher-respondents' level of knowledge of the nature of reading and content area reading instruction. Generally, the teacher-respondents were found to be moderately knowledgeable of the nature of reading and content area reading instruction. The common issues in content area reading instruction include teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills, insufficient number of content area reading instruction training activities available for teachers, and resistance to implement and integrate reading instruction and strategies.</p> Winicel May Ancheta Copyright (c) 2022 Winicel May Ancheta 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 66 80 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.802 Re-imagining the Past and Mastering the Present: The Power of Analogical Arguments in American Presidents’ and Celebrities’ Discourses <p><em>Inspecting the genealogy of American statecraft discourse, it seems that historical knowledge grasped out of past experiences has been framed as a social reality that has been justified with consistency and uncompromising conviction by different political actors to contain global threats. The present article studies how analogical analysis is engaged in linking various texts of different genres, though displayed by different actors at different points in history, embed common themes and ideologies. In this regard, this study is an attempt to uncover the analogical construct underlying US presidents’ (George W.H. Bush and George W. Bush) and celebrities’ (Ben Affleck and George Clooney) discourses by investigating the extent to which their analogical reasoning contributes to the construction of common ideologies. To unpack this argument, the paper also scrutinizes the linguistic parameters of analogies by delineating the linguistic devices aimed at reinforcing the tenor of the analogy. To study the implications of the analogical arguments communicated in the language of these political actors, the research adopts a theoretical scheme combining Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis and Analogy. The findings bring out that their analogical reasoning, reinforced by linguistic toolkits, draws on the retreat strategy to legitimize US foreign policy in the Third-World.</em></p> Hana Riani Copyright (c) 2022 Hana Riani 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 81 95 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.793 On the Phonological Derivation of Compensatory Lengthening in Standard Malay: A Stratal Optimality Theoretical Approach <p>This study used Stratal Optimality Theory (OT) as the analytical framework to analyze the phonological derivation of Compensatory Lengthening (CL) in Standard Malay that targets the moraic rhotic /r/ in the coda position. It was concluded that to ensure the moraicity assignment to the rhotic /r/ in the postvocalic position before any consonant deletion or vowel lengthening, the moraic structures were built based on Weight-By-Position (WBP) prior to the segmental changes that resulted in the CL, which meant that the floating mora became affiliated to the preceding stem vowel. This phonological derivation was seen to be a form of counterbleeding in which the consonant deletion counterbleeds the WBP. The Stratal OT model successfully accounts for this counterbleeding as an opaque rule interaction, with the first stratum ensuring that the moraic structure is built before any segmental deletion or lengthening changes and the second stratum dealing with the CL.</p> MUFLEH ALQAHTANI Copyright (c) 2022 MUFLEH ALQAHTANI 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 96 112 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.804 The Gothic Femme Fatale in Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations and Bram Stoker’s Dracula <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; Since its emergence in the eighteenth century, the Gothic genre has functioned as a literary means for many writers for expressing fears and anxieties including those related to gender ideology in Victorian era. The genre operates as a means for many writers to demonize powerful or seductive women. The femme fatale is seen as a moral threat or a disease to the Victorian society because she was represented as being outside of the parameters of the feminine ideal of a respectable Victorian society. The first theoretical part focuses on the Gothic genre as a literary means used by Victorian writers to represent the social anxieties of the era, mainly women who go beyond gender norms. The next part is about the modern femme fatale that bears many similarities with the older biblical figures. This article depends on the analysis of Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations and Bram Stoker’s Dracula’s female characters who are the personification of some cultural fear. It deals with the femme fatale as a female villain and their Gothic representations in these novels.</em> <em>This paper focuses on the Gothic genre that is used as the literary tool through which Stoker and Dickens attempt to represent the femme fatale. </em></p> Sana Chebil Copyright (c) 2021 Sana Chebil 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 4 1 113 121 Oral Language Proficiency: Basis for Material Design and Development <p><em>This study was conducted to examine the perceived level of oral language proficiency of the first-year college students enrolled in the Purposive Communication course during the school year 2019-2020 in a private university of Davao City. It also aimed to determine the challenges experienced in speaking activities. This study used embedded mixed-method design. An adopted survey questionnaire was used in quantitative that contained six constructs: comprehension, fluency, vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, and non-verbal communication. Whereas, in qualitative data, it employed focus group discussion. Sixty respondents participated in quantitative data selected through simple random sampling, and eight respondents participated in interview sessions. Results reveal that: (a) students’ overall perceived level of their oral language proficiency is high; (b) the themes that flourished in the FGD are dilemmas in comprehending the subject matter/topic, drawbacks in analyzing the question, troubles in organizing thoughts and ideas, predicament brought by stage fright, shortfall of vocabularies, insufficiency of terms, hurdles with difficult words, struggles on how to pronounce words correctly, problems with sentence construction, lack of mastery of the rules of subject-verb agreement, experiencing uneasiness through physical reactions, and exhibiting anxiousness through physical activities/discomfort. It is recommended that the proposed instructional material should be utilized to aid the needed speaking competence. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jonrey Torrevillas Copyright (c) 2021 Jonrey Torrevillas 2022-02-02 2022-02-02 4 1 122 135 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.749 Role of Semantics in Figurative-Texture of Matthew Arnold’s Dover Beach <p>The semantic process plays a crucial role in learning the literal and contextual meanings of a poem’s figurative texture (Bredin, 1992; Cuccio et al., 2014; Depraetere, 2019). Improper understanding of semantics mechanism and contextual theories may also lead the familiar and determined audiences to learn ambiguous messages and meaning of a word (Leclercq, 2020; Satta, 2020) that has many possible meanings which create semantic ambiguities and conflicts (Hoffman et al., 2013). However, a poem audience must know how the meaning of a word or phrase works and how he or she can remove confusion to comprehend the literal meanings in the figurative language contexts of a poem. The figurative texture of Arnold’s Dover Beach is fabricated within diverse figures of speeches uploaded in the text. The collage text image of figurative texture presents common words and phrases with the byzantine meanings and misinformation of the synonyms and antonyms lexical pragmatic interface to the readers. In support and meaningful solutions for the research gap, this article attempt defined and described the role of semantics in the figurative texture of Matthew Arnold’s Dover Beach creatively so that collective and determined audiences can comprehend the poem critically based on qualitative description research methodology.</p> Meenakshi Sharma Yadav Kahkasha Moin Quadri Mohammad Osman Copyright (c) 2022 Meenakshi, Kahkasha, Osman 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 4 1 136 153 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.855 The Novelist as a Historian: A Study of the Nigerian/Biafran War Account from the Perspective of Chukwuemeka Ikeh’s Sunset at Dawn <p><em>The novelist is a creator and a creative writer whose foundation is lodged in imaginative thinking. It is in the creative writer’s ability to recreate events, which had either taken place or could take place, through the use of fictive characters, and creative use of language. This study therefore introspects the events of the Nigerian/Biafra civil war from the perspective of the novelist as a historian, in doing this the study examines the events of the civil war from the literary perspectives and accounts of a literary giant Chukwu Emeka Ikeh’s Sunset at Dawn. Data for the study is collected from secondary sources, the text under study and other Nigerian/Biafran war novels, historical books about the civil war, and internet sources. The study adopted the theory of historicism as a frame work. It highlighted the civil war era from the perspective of the writer under study, from the beginning of the conflict to when it became a full-blown war, the killings, starvation, hunger and the end of the war. The study identified some of the remote causes of the war to be the fear of political domination among the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria, deep seated ethnic resentment and acrimony among others. This study recommends that similar situation in future can only be averted through power devolution, all- inclusive leadership style and equitable distribution of the nation’s resources.</em></p> Ifeoma Obuasi JOHNKENEDY AZUBUIKE OZOEMENA Walter Osondu Ugwuagbo Copyright (c) 2022 JOHNKENEDY AZUBUIKE OZOEMENA 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 4 1 154 171 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.780 Impact of Level of Education on the Realization of /r/ and /l/ among Asante English Speakers in Ghana <p><em>Socio-phonetically, the study seeks to investigate the realization of RP phonemes /r/ and /l/ among Asante English speakers in Ghana focusing on the level of education of participants. Using stratified proportion of 1:1:1 for a total of 30 participants, each of the educational groups (Basic, Secondary and Tertiary) consisted of 10 participants who lived and studied in Kumasi, Ghana. The data was analysed using acoustic and auditory tool (PRAAT 6104) and followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 20. The study revealed that the phoneme /r/ can be realized as [r], [l] and linking [r] while the phoneme /l/ is realized as clear [l], dark [?] and linking [l]. The findings indicated that participants level of education significantly impact their choice of specific variants of /r/ and /l/. The study also revealed that the nonstandard realization of the phoneme /r/ as [l] is dominant among basic school children but significantly reduces as they progress from basic through tertiary education.</em></p> Ben Kudus Yussif Ibrahim Imoro Copyright (c) 2022 Ben Kudus Yussif, Ibrahim Imoro 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 4 1 172 188 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.795 Learner Autonomy: Attitudes and Practices of Moroccan University Students in English Departments <p><em>The study at hand examines learner autonomy in the Moroccan higher education context. The relevance of autonomy stems from the need to empower learners with the necessary life skills to succeed both in their personal and professional lives. This study is thus concerned with the possible ways to foster autonomy within Moroccan University students. It also takes into account how teaching English at university and motivating autonomous behaviours in classrooms can be attained in an integrated way. To these ends, quantitative research was conducted through a survey of 326 students studying English at Moroccan universities. Findings revealed a great awareness of the importance of learner autonomy among Moroccan university students. These students hold positive attitudes towards learning autonomously and are engaged in manifesting various autonomous behaviours in class. In short, the survey yielded evidence of very promising ground upon which can be built a culture of autonomy in Moroccan higher education.</em></p> Fouzia Lamkhanter Copyright (c) 2022 Fouzia Lamkhanter 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 4 1 189 207 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.811 The Abstraction of Reality in Cengiz Da?ci’s Benim Gibi Biri (Someone Like Me) <p><em>Cengiz Da?c? has been circling around certain facts since his first novels in the 50's and in his many historically unique novels, he attempted to embrace his readers with human adventures, social and individual fractures based on the alienation and isolation of minorities from their own lands and perceivable periods in the shed of clashes and wars. This study aimed at interpreting the aspects of his style in his Benim Gibi Biri (Someone like Me) and presenting the differentiation of the work from its predecessors. The main purpose was to detect the concentration in the narration of Da?c?. The novel underscores the deviations in narration, cohesion and context in general when the character, Joseph becomes the voice of the conscience of the protagonist-narrator. Throughout spatial narration, we observed the traces of Cengiz Da?c? in a silhouette revealing his own personality and experience in actual life. The author’s psychology, outbursts, rebels, traumas and feelings are reflected through the main character, Joseph Tucknell. The deviations in narration highlights the scenes that create pathos for the readers when language becomes poetic. This study involves three main parts. In the first part, the novel Benim Gibi Biri (Someone like Me) by Cengiz Da?c? is analyzed in terms of characterization, themes and setting. Secondly, the focus was on the narrative techniques and cohesion within the context of the text. Finally, it was concluded that Cengiz Da?c? applied essential techniques to abstract his ideas from his fiction in this notable novel, distinguished from his previous works. Therefore, his works still mark the literary canon in terms of unique style and themes.</em></p> Senem Üstün Kaya Ümmühan Bilgin Topçu Copyright (c) 2022 Senem Üstün Kaya, Ümmühan Bilgin Topçu 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 4 1 208 224 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.822 Filipino-Ness in Anna Felicia Sanchez’s “Martinés” <p class="AuthorInfo" style="text-align: justify; line-height: normal; tab-stops: 36.0pt;"><em>Filipino-ness in cultural beliefs, cultural practices, personality traits, cultural values, and perception of mythical creatures and supernatural phenomena were the main concepts of the study. The research aimed to extract and analyze Filipino-ness in the story “Martinés” by Anna Felicia Sanchez. Content analysis, extraction of passages in the story through frame of references such as; characters, settings, conflict, and sensory imagery were used in the analysis of the story “Martinés”. Filipino-ness in cultural beliefs signifies that Filipinos are superstitious people for they tend to give attention and importance to some supernatural forces. Filipino ness in cultural practices reveals that Filipinos are traditional practitioners of offerings in the form of ritual activities. Filipinos are also practicing “Bayanihan”, especially during crucial times in their lives. Filipino-ness in personality traits shows that the Filipinos despite the problems are experiencing, still are determined and optimistic to surpass all hardships. Filipino ness in cultural values exemplifies the hospitality of the Filipinos to their visitors. Filipino-ness in the perception of mythical creatures and supernatural phenomena displays how Filipinos perceived supernatural forces and entities as an influence of their culture. The portrayal of the Filipinos as strong believers in superstitions is dominant in the story “Martinés”. This suggests that there are still Filipinos who give value to superstitions in this present time. Thus, the story “Martinés” is a vital reference in teaching aspects of Filipino culture in a literature class, which can be also a way to promote and preserve Filipino culture and literature.</em></p> <p class="AuthorInfo" style="text-align: justify; line-height: normal; tab-stops: 36.0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> KIER GARCIA Copyright (c) 2022 KIER GARCIA 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 4 1 225 238 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.825 Society Versus the Desires of Women in Madame Bovary and Grihadaha: The Scandalous Woman Conundrum <p><em>This research paper attempts a comparative study between Sarat Chandra Chattopadhaya’s novel Grihadaha and Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary. The exploration involves a comparative analysis of the dreams and desires of the female protagonists in relation to the social and cultural norms of the times in which the novels are set with an intention to evaluate how the respective societies treat these women. Initially, both texts were closely read and analyzed separately for better understanding. Then the texts were read comparatively to identify the similarities and the differences. The study led to the discovery that be it the conservative Bengali society or the comparatively lenient French society, the pursuit, and fulfillment of the dreams and desires of women are always restricted in favor of patriarchy. Men enjoy privileges that are not offered to women and societies are often inherently hypocritical and unjustifiable.</em></p> Mohsina Ahsan Naziba Saiyara Md Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 Md Hasan, Mohsina Ahsan, Naziba Saiyara 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 4 1 239 248 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.830 Reading as a Tool for Enhancing English Second Language Learning of Ordinary Level Learners in Namibian Secondary Schools <p><em>The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of reading towards English as Second Language learning at Ordinary Level in Namibian senior secondary schools. A qualitative methodology was used for the study, carried out through a case study investigation, which involved secondary school teachers and learners who were randomly selected. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis yielded key themes on the role of reading in ESL, namely; reading experience and the use of textbooks to enhance reading. The findings indicate that reading is not developed as a culture for the majority of OL learners. As is the case with Higher Level, there are no prescribed reading materials for OL. The researchers argue that Namibians have not yet adopted reading as part of their culture, ultimately contributing immensely to the high failure rate of learners. The study recommends that concerted efforts need to be made to instill the love of reading in OL learners for them to reach the same level as HL learners.</em></p> Sylvia Ithindi Dr. Alta Engelbrecht Dr Lizette de Jager Copyright (c) 2022 Sylvia Ithindi, Dr Engelbrecht , Dr de Jager 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 249 259 (De)Constructing Myths in Editorial Cartoons: The Case of Philippine Elections <p><em>The electoral situation in the Philippines can be described as dramatic, and it seems to be a severe political competition since various media are exploited and manipulated; either the purpose is to construct or to assassinate one's character. This paper analyzed 20 editorial cartoons to identify the signifiers, infer the connotative meanings, and analyze the myths present in the editorial cartoons that represent the upcoming Philippine National election in 2022. This research employed a qualitative descriptive research design and content analysis. The researchers utilized purposive sampling in selecting the twenty editorial cartoons from reputable newspaper companies in the Philippines. Results of the study showed that the common signifiers present in the editorial cartoons were the men in barong and wearing salakot representing the Filipino citizens, alligator, lion, and pig representing the candidates, and finger-pointing that connotes blaming. Another significant finding that emerged from this study was the nine deconstructed myths inferred from the signifiers: political feud, hiding true intentions, political colors, election promises, power tripping, social media influence in electoral campaigns, foreign influence, honesty in an election, and nuisance candidates. In conclusion, from the perspective of the cartoonists of different media outlets, the election situation in the Philippines is negatively framed. Thus, the researchers recommend to conduct a study related to the signs used to portray the election process to understand the relationship of the concepts between its denotative and connotative meanings.</em></p> John Albert Nares Joveth Jay Montaña Copyright (c) 2022 John Albert Nares, Joveth Jay Montaña 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 260 272 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.837 Teaching Creative Writing as a Strategy of Cognitive Activity <p><em>Issues surrounding creative writing have become increasingly significant in recent years, fueled by the benefits provided by the Internet and the needs of remote learning caused by an isolation period. The English language is a discipline to learn and a tool to study other subjects through reading and analysing short or extended texts. This way, students perceive ready knowledge, then they enhance their higher order cognitive skills: and evaluation of the events and discoveries and create their own texts, articles, essays, research papers. As English is accepted as a language of communication, science and of the Internet all over the world so writing in English provides students with physical evidence of their achievements. They share their understanding of different scientific phenomena and deepen their knowledge in certain fields. Writing takes more time and is not so attractive practice to use in class, as it is considered to be a “quite” activity. The authors suggest the approaches to use creative writing as a crucial strategy of cognitive performance, as it covers many of the learning objectives: distant communication, sharing ideas and opinion, using appropriate grammar, vocabulary, register, style, ability to write, structure and edit the texts for various purposes.</em></p> Yekaterina Rakhmanbergenova Copyright (c) 2022 Yekaterina 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 273 281 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.841 Looking From a Window: A Critical Analysis of the T'boli's Worldview Through their Oral Traditions <p><em>This study analyses a collective worldview through the values embodied in the oral traditions of the T'boli, an indigenous tribe in Lake Sebu, the Philippines. Utilising ethnographic method, data collection is made primarily through informants' in-depth interview and literary criticism of the oral traditions. The study records, transcribes, translates, codes and classifies the T'boli's oral traditions according to their genre. Framed under Carl Jung's Archetypal Criticism's perspective, it identifies T'boli's religious, human, and cultural values in the mythical characters and in the recurring motifs and themes of their oral traditions. The prominent motifs in T'boli's oral traditions are the controlling imageries of a deity and a body of water. The recurring didactic teachings in the themes are devotion, altruism, and deference. The embodied values are faithfulness, generosity and respect and obedience to authority. These values shape the T'boli's worldview in terms of their cultural and religious practices and traditions.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> Carlo Domingo Casinto Copyright (c) 2022 Carlo Domingo Casinto 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 282 303 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.842 A Contrastive Lexicology of Greeting and Food Terms of English and Ogu Language: Its Pedagogical Implications <p><em>This paper is a contrastive study of two semantic fields of English and Ogu language namely greeting terms and food terms with the aim of identifying how lexical variations in the two semantic fields affect the learning of English by Ogu second language (L2) learner. The paper observed that the internal differentiation of human societies is reflected in the two languages, and responsible for some learning difficulties of Ogu English learner, especially in the lexis, which is considered as more culturally generated. The theoretical framework for the study is anchored on structural semantics, Sapir-whorf hypothesis and contrastive analysis principles. Twenty (20) subjects, who are Ogu/English bilinguals were purposively selected and interviewed with specific questions from the two semantic fields under study. The findings revealed that the socio-cultural and geographical realities of each speech community accounts for their vocabulary and naming of words. The paper thus recommended proper understanding of the learner’s culture for proper translation of texts, design appropriate module for teaching and learning English, and a practical classroom approach to learning of second language vocabulary as some of the ways of resolving the learning problems confronted by Ogu learners of English.</em></p> Taofeek Olanrewaju Alabi Copyright (c) 2022 Taofeek Olanrewaju Alabi 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 4 1 304 316 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.859 Promoting Environmental Education in Moroccan High School ELT Textbooks <p><em>This paper examines the extent to which three Moroccan high school ELT textbooks integrate environmental education contents. The analysis focuses on four environmental education topics namely ecosystems and cycles, pollution, use of resources, and environment preservation as well as their subtopics. The study is informed by the theoretical framework developed by the BIOHEAD-CITIZEN project that aimed at understanding how environmental education can promote citizenship. This study adopted a convergent parallel mixed method design using content analysis to investigate the degree of presence of environmental education elements in Visa to the World, Ticket to English, and Ticket 2 English. The results revealed statistical evidences indicating that environmental education integration in these textbooks appeals to the learners’ minimum fundamental environmental knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behaviors. Ultimately, this study suggests ways in which textbooks could contribute to improve students ‘environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.</em></p> Hassan Laaloua Youssef Tamer Copyright (c) 2022 Hassan Laaloua, Youssef Tamer 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 317 330 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.860 A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of American Native Speakers of English and Moroccan EFL University Students’ Production of the Speech Act of Request <p><em>The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of request strategies, request sub-strategies, and request orientations by Moroccan EFL learners (MEFLLs) and American native speakers of English (ANSE). To achieve this objective, the researcher adopted a mixed approach by collecting data through a semi-structured interview and a discourse completion test. The DCT is composed of ten situations adopted from Blum-Kulka et al.’s (1989) Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns project and modified by Khamam (2012). Thirty MEFLLs and thirty ANSE responded to the discourse completion test, while four MEFLLs and three ANSE were interviewed. Furthermore, to analyse said and unsaid requests, this study relied on Blum-Kulka et al.’s (1989) coding scheme and Marti’s (2006) model. The results showed that MEFLLs differed from ANSE in several ways. MEFLLs were more direct than ANSE, as they used direct request strategies and hearer-oriented requests more than ANSE. However, the two groups preferred the conventionally indirect request strategy to the other request strategies. Regarding request sub-strategies, the two groups frequently selected the query preparatory strategy. Nevertheless, it was chosen by ANSE more than MEFLLs.</em></p> <p> </p> Abdelfattah Abidi Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelfattah Abidi 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 331 349 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.867 Exploring Coherence among Sri Lankan CFL Learners in Chinese-English Translation: Decoding and Interpreting of Culture-loaded Content <p><em>Modern translation has shifted from its traditional approach of merely translating linguistic features towards a more culturally sensitive approach, which further considers the sociolinguistic spaces of the source text in producing the target text. This significant theoretical transformation has demanded the translator to play a more comprehensive role, which involves intercultural and sociolinguistic competencies apart from language competence. Subsequently, maintaining cohesion and coherence within and among texts also demands a heavier effort from the translator with neologisms being created frequently. The present study has been an attempt to identify the core issues pertaining to lexical coherence in translating from Chinese sources in Sri Lankan context using sample texts translated by Sri Lankan CFL (Chinese as a Foreign Language) learners. 20 culture-loaded lexical items were examined for coherence using a plagiarism checker and compared with Google and Baidu translation outputs of the source text. The results manifest that there is significant coherence among the target texts but coherence is a result of excessive use of machine translation, especially Google translate(?=94.67). 5-10 clusters were the most frequent clusters with an average of 21.73 clusters. &lt; 10 word clusters have recorded an average of 19.07 whereas&gt; 5 word clusters have recorded an average of 12.60.The highest number of clusters is recorded in text 5 with 44 clusters of &lt;10 words. The highest number of translated variants of the same cultural term of the selected word list (n=20) is 4 while 70% (n=14) of the selected terms were only translated into either 1 or 2 variants. While machine translation is perceived as a constructive instrument under proper management, vigilant use of footnotes and end notes is perceived as a viable solution for reducing misinterpretation, vagueness and confusion in translating culture-loaded lexical items.</em></p> Noel Dassanayake Copyright (c) 2022 Noel Dassanayake 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 350 363 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.868 The Translation Features of Emily Dickinson’s Poetry’s Chinese Translation Dust is the Only Secret <p><em>Using program written in python language to conduct a statistical and comparative analysis of poetic form and vocabulary use of Emily Dickinson's poems and its Chinese translation in the poetry collection, Dust is the Only Secret, translated by Xu Chungang, to reveal features of the translation, it is found that, compared with the original, the form of translated poetry deviates obviously from the original, in which quantity of verse line is close to the original, while the stanza deviation is large. Punctuation deviations such as deviations of dash, comma and period from the original are the most prominent. The translation is slightly inferior to the original in terms of richness of nouns and delicacy and exquisiteness of image depiction with adjectives, but far advantageous in dynamic of language due to abundant use of verbs.</em></p> Jianxin Zhou Copyright (c) 2022 Jianxin Zhou 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 364 373 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.803 Linguistic Landscape in the West Bank: Road Signs as Manifestations of Occupation <p>This study investigates road signs put in place by Israel in Area C in the occupied West Bank. &nbsp;It discusses how language on road signs in the West Bank serve as tool that enforces Israeli dominance over the area and blurs the Palestinian existence. This dominance is reflected in the excessive placement of signs referring to Israeli settlements compared to signs referring to Palestinian communities, transliteration of Arabic names of sites into Hebrew, and deletion of Arabic, a language associated with the Palestinian identity, from road signs. In addition, this paper demonstrates how the exclusion of Arabic from road signs, especially brown signs referring to tourist attractions, serves as a barrier that aims at limiting Palestinians’ access to some parts of the West Bank and shows Israeli discriminatory practices against Palestinians. Moreover, this paper explains how warning signs at Israeli checkpoint construct the concept of the “Palestinian islands” by dividing the West Bank into disconnected enclaves surrounded by an ocean of Area C making the idea of establishing an independent Palestinian state seem impossible. Finally, this study records instances of Palestinians’ resistance to Israel through vandalism of signs that were placed by the Israeli authorities in Area C.</p> Montaser Motia Ujvari Copyright (c) 2022 Montaser Motia Ujvari 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 4 1 374 387 10.36892/ijlls.v4i1.881