International Journal of Language and Literary Studies https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> Tawasul International Centre for publishing, Research and Dialogue en-US International Journal of Language and Literary Studies 2704-5528 Narrating Homosexuality across Borders and Beyond Boundaries in Hanan Al-Shaykh's Only in London (2001) https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/911 <p><em>The present paper examines Hanan al-Shaykh's interrogations of homosexuality across borders and beyond the boundaries of East and West in ‘Only in London’ (2001), a diasporic novel with a Lebanese homosexual protagonist, Samir. It analyzes the ways in which the heterosexual, social, and power networks established to ostensibly force Samir's homosexuality into the closet work to eliminate the existence of homosexuality as an independent identity in Arab society. Drawing on Michael Foucault's framework of sexuality and biopolitical analysis, the paper negotiates the depiction of mental hospital scenes, the medicalization of Samir's homosexuality, and the social pathologization of his alternative gender and sexuality as instruments of "bio-politics of the population" designed to lock homosexuality into a "pathological phenomenon", which has to be medicalized in order to conform to homonormative mainstream culture. It demonstrates how through the mechanisms of biopower, and techniques of surveillance of bodies, Samir's homosexuality is turned into an object of intense observation, study, and power relations. It maintains that the pathologizing psychiatric discourse, the heterosexual institution of marriage, Samir's family, and the state are all complicit with the heteropatriarchal taxonomies of sexuality. The paper further illustrates how being Arab, an immigrant, and a homosexual in London complicate Samir's existence as an alien homosexual being in exile.</em></p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong></p> Mohamed Batauoi Copyright (c) 2022 Mohamed Batauoi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 1 13 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.911 The Phonology of Geminates in Bedouin Hijazi Arabic: An Optimality Theoretic Approach https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/946 <p><em>This paper examines the phonology of geminates in Bani Sulaim dialect, BSD, a Bedouin Hijazi dialect spoken in Saudi Arabia, within Optimality Theory framework, OT. The analysis covers lexical geminates, phonologically derived geminates through assimilation, and gemination as a compensatory strategy to compensate for lost mora after vowel deletion. The paper explores the interaction between vowel deletion, assimilation, and compensatory lengthening. In BSD, lexical geminates are phonemically contrastive with singletons in word medial and word final positions, while phonologically derived geminates are found in word initial and word final positions through assimilation. Using OT constraints, ranking the markedness constraints, that disallow certain consonant clusters in the output, higher than the faithfulness constraints shows that phonotactically prohibited consonant clusters are avoided through total assimilation that results in gemination. The final phonological process that generates geminates in BSD is a form of consonant lengthening to adhere to the moraic weight requirement of the dialect. In addition to presenting new data, this paper contributes to the sparse literature on geminates in Bedouin dialects.</em></p> Majed AL SOLAMI Copyright (c) 2022 Majed AL SOLAMI https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 14 42 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.946 Gender Representation in Moroccan EFL Textbooks’ Conversations: A Quantitative and Qualitative Content Analysis https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/942 <p><em>By employing two analytical methods, this study investigates gender representation in the conversations of an EFL textbook currently used in Moroccan secondary schools. First, a quantitative content analysis studies the following four criteria: (1) dialogue initiation, (2) turn-taking, (3) the number of words used, and (4) the number of participants. Second, a qualitative content analysis of all the textbook conversations is carried out by examining males’ and females’ topics of the talks, their active/passive roles, their high/low status, and gender differences in language use. Although the results indicated a minor numeric difference favouring males, the qualitative analysis proved an obvious stereotypical depiction of female participants in conversations' topics by connecting them with household chores' issues and assigning them traditional gender roles. Furthermore, gender differences in language use were discovered, which confirms the results of prominent figures in the area, such as Lakoff (1975), Spender (1980), and Tannen (1991). The paper ends with a conclusion and some recommendations aiming at supporting textbooks free of sexist attitudes.</em></p> Hassane BENLAGHRISSI Copyright (c) 2022 Hassane BENLAGHRISSI, L. Meriem Ouahidi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 43 53 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.942 The Phonological Ordering Constraint of the Short-Before-Long Preference Tendency in Qassimi Arabic Binomial Phrases: a Quantitative Analysis https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/988 <p><em>Research on the phonological constraints on the linear order in binomial phrases has proven that the tendency to place the short conjunct before the long one can be active differently in different languages. The current research addresses the short-before-long preference tendency in binomials in Qassimi Arabic. It shows that Qassimi Arabic binomials manifest the short-before-long preference in three possible forms: (1) the conjunct containing the fewer phonemes (i.e., the shorter item) tends to precede the one containing the more phonemes (i.e., the longer item) within the same binomial phrase, (2) the conjunct containing the fewer syllables (i.e. the shorter item) tends to precede the one containing the more syllables (i.e. the longer item) within the same binomial phrase, and (3) the conjunct containing the shorter vowel (i.e. the shorter item) tends to precede the one containing the longer vowel (i.e. the longer item) within the same binomial phrase. To approve the real existence of these proposed hypotheses in Qassimi Arabic binomials, the study adopts a quantitative analysis which has largely been adopted in relevant studies. The findings of the quantitative analysis of a big number of binomials (336 binomial pairs) indicate the satisfaction rates for the three hypotheses posited in the current study are statistically highly significant. Therefore, the study concludes that there is definite evidence for the factual existence of the short-before-long preference in Qassimi Arabic binomials, a finding which is compatible with similar studies in binomials in English and some other European languages.</em></p> Muhammad Swaileh Alzaidi Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Swaileh Alzaidi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 54 75 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.988 Incorporating Multiple Intelligences in L2 Writing Classes: New Horizons in Redefining the Classroom https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/984 <p><em>This article seeks to restore the notion of the classroom in light of emerging pedagogies. It attempts to provide a sketchy introduction of the theory of multiple intelligences and its potential gains in ELT. Despite the variance of teaching methods and approaches implemented in classrooms, students’ results in some topics have remained below the par of teachers’ expectations. This article attempts to provide a solution to teaching students to their differences and learning preferences. It investigates the impacts of accommodating students’ intelligences profiles in writing classes. To fulfill this objective, 114 male and female participants majoring in English at the University of Kairouan were asked to write a five-paragraph essay and respond to a writing strategies questionnaire, a multiple intelligences inventory. The collected data were statistically analyzed using Pearson Correlation and ANOVA techniques to probe possible correlations and predictability levels between MI profiles and WS. The findings indicated that there is a significant degree of correlations between learners’ multiple intelligence profiles and the writing strategies they use when writing. As for the impacts of multiple intelligences on writing quality, the results revealed weak or no significant correlations. It is then suggested that the same study should be further elaborated within the same L2 context with larger population to acknowledge learners’ differences and learning preferences and benefit from new dimensions in teaching paradigms</em></p> <ul> <li>Chronic deterioration of learners results in different language topics</li> <li>The current upheaval caused by the striking pandemic </li> <li>Lack of homogeneity in the syllabi provided to university students</li> </ul> <p>For the above reasons, implementing the Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner 1983/1999) and Computer Assisted Language Learning at the university level classroom could boost the teaching/ learning and would reduce apprehension and foster learning achievements. So, knowing learners’ individual differences and preferences and integrating CALL in the classroom would allow teachers to establish “broad range of teaching strategies with their students” (Armstrong, 2009). Gardner (2006) also concludes that “people have very different kinds of minds… then education which treats everybody the same way, is actually the most unfair education”. Briefly, incorporating intelligences whether cognitive or artificial and recognizing the blended learning would revolutionize the notion of the classroom and reduce inconveniences between the teaching input and the learning output. Therefore, the new CLASSROOM would be effective, inspiring, and prospective.</p> Hatem Haddaji Copyright (c) 2022 Hatem Haddaji https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 76 94 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.984 An In-depth Study of How Rahim Shah Learned to Speak English and Persian Better Than His Native Language: An Explanatory Case Study https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/990 <p><em>This mixed-methods case study explores how Rahim Shah learned to speak English and Persian much more fluently than his native language (Pashto). In this study, different aspects of the subject- including his personality, language learning style, language learning history, oral and written language skills- are analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Accordingly, attempts have been made in this paper to enlighten his exposure to three languages, Pashto (native), Persian (second) and English (foreign). The results drew that he speaks Persian much more confident than his native language mainly because his parents moved to a Persian-speaking community when he was a child of three years old. This makes it clear that non-native speakers use their knowledge of the new language through interaction with others. The results also recovered that he learned how to speak English better than his native language mainly because he was intrinsically motivated, knowing the positive consequences of learning English. In addition to his high motivation, he consistently listened to native speakers as he spent three years with Americans. Therefore, this case study embraces nearly all the aspects of how Rahim Shah managed to speak English and Persian, and how he failed to speak his native language.</em></p> Ghulam Yahya Asghari Rahimullah Ramish Ali Akbar Zawuli Copyright (c) 2022 Ghulam Yahya Asghari, Rahimullah Ramish, Ali Akbar Zawuli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 95 108 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.990 Use of Question-And-Answer Method in Teaching English Prepositions to Primary School Learners https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1000 <p><em>Primary school education in South Africa is based on the premise that foreign language learners study English as First Additional Language. Although the ideal situation for acquiring any language is to live among native speakers, most learners are not exposed to native English speakers. As the teaching methods employed are governed by this principle, the question-and-answer method provides immediate feedback to teachers and enhances learners’ proficiency in English prepositions. The paper investigated if the question-and-answer method improves learners' proficiency in the learning of English prepositions of movement. Using a qualitative approach, the researchers interviewed and observed the teaching of English prepositions of movement by English First Additional Language teachers. Three rural Grade Six Lwamondo Primary school teachers in Limpopo Province, South Africa were sampled depending on the use of traditional teaching methods. The paper established that the question-and-answer method improved learners’ proficiency in the use of these English prepositions. However, learners were incompetent in a class where the teachers used the narrative method as no questions were answered at the end of the lesson. It can be concluded that the question-and-answer method is appropriate for teaching the English prepositions of movement to Grade Six learners in this regard.</em></p> Farisani Thomas Nephawe Matodzi Nancy Lambani Copyright (c) 2022 farisani Thomas Nephawe, Matodzi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 109 125 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1000 Are Personality Traits in Harry Potter Novels Gender-Based? The Case of Harry, Ron and Hermione https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/974 <p><em>Humans display several different attitudes towards others and towards the life situations and challenges they encounter. Gender is said to be a factor that can determine one’s likeability to show a certain attitude rather than another. Traditionally speaking, men are expected to act one way towards something, while women are expected to act in a different way towards the same thing. This paper aims to identify the extent to which the Harry Potter series abides by, or challenges, the traditional gender stereotypes of human attitudes and reactions. Thus, this paper should help to decide if the three main characters in Harry Potter: Harry, Ron and Hermione, are depicted, in terms of their personality traits, on the basis of traditional gender norms. On a wider scope, the paper aims to investigate the role that widely-read fiction, such as Harry Potter, plays to reinforce traditional ideas or to encourage more liberating views. To achieve these aims, the attitudes and reactions of the three major characters of the novels are to be analyzed. Two of these characters are male: Harry and Ron, while the third: Hermione, is female. The attitudes and reactions of these three characters are to be measured according to how much they take risks or follow the rules, how much they are caring and nurturing, rude, and persistent.</em></p> Shrouk Sultan Basma Saleh Asmaa ElSherbini Copyright (c) 2022 Shrouk Sultan, Basma Saleh, Asmaa ElSherbini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 126 143 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.974 A Textual Analysis of Modality in the 2015 Matriculation Speech of Prof. W. O. Ellis https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/979 <p><em>Speech presentation varies from political, religious, economic, and academic to social issues. Over the years, in academia, some research works have been carried out in various fields of speech presentation. However, studies on the modality in the speeches of educational leaders in Ghana are not pronounced. Consequently, this paper is a textual analysis of the mood choices deployed in the 2015 matriculation ceremony speech of Prof W. O. Ellis, who is one of the past vice-chancellors of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana. The matriculation ceremony was for the 2015/2016 graduate students in the Institute of Distance Learning (IDL), KNUST. With prior permission, the data (Vice Chancellor’s speech) was purposively selected from the University’s portal. The research design used for this study was qualitative. Accordingly, the speech (data) was analysed using the content analysis method. With this method, we identified the various mood structures, the conditions that necessitate a particular mood, and how the mood choices were interpreted manually. The findings showed that the mood choices used in the selected speech were declarative and imperative. Of these two mood choices, declarative was predominant (86%). However, the study revealed that interrogative mood was absent from the speech. The study recommends that, in the future, such speeches should include interrogative moods. The basis is that the interrogative moods (especially rhetorical questions) have the propensity of maintaining the interpersonal relationship between the speaker and the listener.</em></p> Nana Agyemang Opoku Edward Owusu Samuel Kyei Adoma Asuamah Adade Yeboah Solomon Ali Dansieh Priscilla Appiah Copyright (c) 2022 Edward Owusu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 144 157 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.979 Terrestrial Horror or the Marriage between Horror Fiction and Cli-Fi: What the Language of Horror can Teach us about Climate Change https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/985 <p><em>This paper focuses on the dystopian camp of climate fiction and its affinities with another fiction genre: horror. During cli-fi’s rise, horror has enjoyed a resurgence of popular interest and sustained and reinvigorated scholarly interest in the past few years. While horror and dystopian cli-fi have different roots and conceptual underpinnings, there are points of contact between the genres, when the horrible in horror fiction spawns from environmental collapse or when the climatic in cli-fi drives what horrifies. My central claim is that these contact points, the overlap between cli-fi and horror fiction, become critical research nodes for developing the necessary societal, cultural, and intellectual framework for living in a destroyed world. I suggest a label for the crossover between cli-fi and horror fiction: terrestrial horror. Analyzing multiple texts within this subgenre renders visible the societal, cultural, and intellectual changes necessary for the kinds of posthumanism needed in a destroyed world.</em></p> Jonathan Elmore Copyright (c) 2022 Jonathan Elmore https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 158 164 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.985 Harmonization of Mythology into the Poetry of the Modern Poets: A Study on the Selected Poems of Yeats, Eliot and Auden https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/969 <p><em>This research is an endeavour to explore the poetry of the three prevalent modern poets William Butler Yeats, Thomas Sterns Eliot and Wystan Hugh Auden, through the lenses of their harmonization of mythology. Though they belong to the modern period in English literature, they reference different types of myths as they teach us moral lessons and profound purpose, explain historical events and add creativity to literary pieces. This study searches for the reason why and how the poets incorporate the usage of mythology into their poetry. In this paper, the writer will allude to some of the lines of different poems of the three poets above. Through the reference of these poems, the reader will come to understand with what purpose the poets integrate the representation of mythology into their poems. Specifically, this research will focus on the poetry of the modern poets. These three poet depict their poems with mythology in their own way. They always try to deploy different myths into their poems as these are very meaningful and purposeful to our life still. Our selected three poets more or less experience both the WWI and WWII and the after effects of these two massive war make them to contemplate for the people, the country and the world. They ruminate on the contemporary devastative circumstances of the world. Through exhibiting various mythical allusions into their poetry, they attempt to rekindle peace and complacency all over the world. The researcher captures evidence from textual reference to support her opinion regarding the related issues. This paper attempts to expose the related reasons why and how the modern poets delineate mythology into their poetry.</em></p> JANNAT E HOSNE ARA Copyright (c) 2022 JANNAT E HOSNE ARA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 165 175 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.969 Feminist Perspective in Shashi Deshpande’s Selected Novels https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/996 <p><em>No other woman novelist than Shashi Deshpande has been given accolades so greatly and accorded prominence and worldwide recognition for the projection of feminine sensibility in Indian English Literature. Her exploration of the female psyche by probing deep into the inner working of her mind is highly appreciated by the readers and greatly discussed among the researchers and critics. The novels of Shashi Deshpande are centred on women’s psyche to understand their urges and despairs in a better way. Her protagonists advocate for ‘A Room of One’s Own and proclaim their rights on their bodies. She has portrayed the characters unsatisfied with the uncongenial social conditions that confront their aspirations, needs, urges and hopes. So they conduct themselves in different ways displaying different attitudes and temperaments. These characters undergo a remarkable dynamism in their personalities, and display satisfactory development in their attitude and outlook regarding life. The authors in this research analysis have attempted to examine in depth the various feminist issues projected in her novels through the characters of the main protagonists: Indu of Roots and Shadows, Jaya of That Long Silence and Saru of The Dark Holds No Terrors.</em></p> Shree Om Sambharwal Neetu Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Shree Om Sambharwal, Dr. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 176 191 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.996 Literature and Ecology: Promoting an Eco-Consciousness through Children Literature https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/993 <p>T<em>he study scrutinises intermingled relations between children literature and some ecological issues. Such interwoven relationships would be highly recommended to encourage children to explore and identify themselves with nature from early ages to avoid facing an extreme experience later on. The research limits its scope to two novels Suzanne Collins’ (1962) The Hunger Games trilogy (2003-2007) and William Golding’s (1911-1993) Lord of the Flies (1954), and both novels have no direct connections with Ecology and the Eco-consciousness, yet it offers an insightful description about Man’s experience with Nature. Moreover, it raises serious moral questions, raises awareness, heals wounds and suggests solutions for the problems that are both cultural and physical about man’s interactions with nature. The study narrows its theoretical methodology to the thematic contents of literature rather than their form.</em></p> <p><em>Nevertheless, theories of ecocriticism such as Serpil Oppermann’s, Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm are to be mentioned due to their relevance to the main ideas mentioned in the research. The conclusion sums up that the environment is turned to be man’s collective problem rather than a mere didactic issue. This problem is referred to not only as a problem of nature, but also as social, psychological, and cultural problem that negatively affect all components of the earth. It is about a broad perspective which includes human as well as nonhuman nature.</em></p> Enas subhi Amer Copyright (c) 2022 Enas subhi Amer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 192 201 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.993 The Challenges Faced by Novice Teachers of English for Medical Purposes (Emp): The Case of Saudi Arabia's Medical Colleges https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/953 <p><em>The teachers of English for Medical Purposes (EMP) are faced with problems of lack of appropriate materials, professional support, low learner motivation and no provision of writing study module at medical colleges of Saudi Arabia. There is not enough study on these issues and researchers are quiet about addressing them. Understanding the new English for Medical Purposes teachers' challenges is of crucial importance to improve their performance and, accordingly, their students' performance. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges of the new EMP teachers in teaching medical English via exploring the present situation analysis (PSA). This study follows a qualitative approach to conduct an investigation through rigorous interview with five EMP teachers (Ts) and three medical professors (MP) who are the deans of different medical colleges of Saudi Arabia. Data were entered through Atlas ti. Software to be sorted and analyzed for findings which were presented in figures and graphs. The study has found that new EMP teachers face difficulties, such as, adjustment of the English words in the medical context, pronunciation, and the meaning of the medical terminology. They also face challenges such as English used for medical procedures, daily routine in medical institutions, communication with medical staff and patients. But there is hardly any help available for the new EMP teachers to cope with this situation. Pedagogical issues, such as, the methodology of ESP is another area the EMP teachers find it difficult to tackle it. The findings call for steps to find solutions for these challenges to improve the performance of EMP teachers and their students.</em></p> Hani Elgindi Eligindi Mohammed Shamsul Hoque Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Shamsul Hoque, Dr. Eligindi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 202 220 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.953 Developing Creative Thinking Skills in EFL Classes in Morocco https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/994 <p><em>The present paper reports on an evaluation study investigating the extent to which Moroccan EFL high school classrooms encourage the development of creative thinking skills. Our objectives were: to explore the extent to which educational policy documents, namely the National Charter for Education and Training (1999), the White Paper (2002) and the Guidelines for teaching English (2007) promote the development of creative thinking; to find out whether Ticket to English 2 textbook has the potential to support students to think creatively; to investigate teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards developing creative thinking and to discover insights into the nature of classroom environment with regard to the development of the skill. The study used a mixed methods design which involves a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The purpose behind this choice is to investigate the match between the aims and objectives outlined in educational policy documents and their implementation through the textbook and teaching practices. The study employed five research instruments namely documents analysis, textbook evaluation, questionnaires, classroom observation, and a semi-structured interview. The results revealed that the importance of creative thinking has been emphasized in policy documents, yet the textbook and teaching practices focus on lower-order thinking skills, such as remembering and understanding. The study concludes with practical recommendations for policy makers, textbook designers, teachers, and teacher development programs.</em></p> Zaina Smare Mohamed Elfatihi Copyright (c) 2022 Zaina Smare, Mohamed Elfatihi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 4 3 221 246 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.994 The Realization of Apology Strategies: A Comparative Study between Moroccan EFL Learners and Native Speakers of English https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1015 <p><em>Pragmatic competence, generally defined as the study of language in its social context, has been part and parcel of language learning and teaching. Oftentimes, second language learners tend to fall short in expressing themselves in spite of their linguistic competence. Second language pragmatic research has shown that the greater the difference between cultures, the greater the likelihood of pragmatic failure among non-native speakers of English. With this in mind, this study aims at comparing the similarities and differences between Moroccan University Learners of English (MLE) and Native Speakers of English (NSE) apology strategies in order to identify and predict aspect of language use which are likely to create intercultural communication breakdowns among the two cultures, thus contributing to foreign language education. Henceforth, using a discourse completion task, data was elicited from 50 MLE and 50 NSE, who responded to 8 apology situations. Results showed that the most frequent strategy used for both groups is the explicit Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID); however, the two groups differ in the frequency of other implicit apology strategies. </em></p> Abdelhay JARRAR Smail Kerouad Imane Masmoudi Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelhay JARRAR, Smail Kerouad, Imane Masmoudi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 4 3 247 259 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1015 Zora Neale Hurston’s Controversial Relation to the Harlem Renaissance https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1019 <p><em>This study is about the African American Harlem Renaissance star Zora Neale Hurston and her link to this movement. She was perceived negatively by some central male figures in this movement because she didn’t follow the trend of “propaganda” for “race lifting.” She was accused of presenting a very negative image of African Americans. This image matches the stereotypical white views of the black. They believed such an image must be suppressed or marginalized in favour of something more urgent that serves the black as a whole. Others found in this approach an attempt on Hurston's part to reach and make her voice heard for the white and her interests with white publishers. In fact, she was a folklorist and anthropologist dedicated to preserving the African American heritage. She transcended the “race people” for an objective and scientific representation of her people. She examines the relationship between Hurston’s text and culture as a text, her role as outsider/ insider in telling the black folktales, occupying an anthropologist job that is classified as exclusively masculine and done by the white.</em></p> SALAM ALALI Copyright (c) 2022 SALAM ALALI https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 4 3 260 276 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1019 An An Analysis of Lif-Conditions in Samuel Beckett’s Happy Days and the Covid-19 Pandemic: Similarities and Differences https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1023 <p><em>The Second World War caused long-term destruction to human life in the countries involved. As a result, life at that time was severely affected by many economic, educational, and social factors that exceeded the physical disability and psychological trauma. Likewise, the COVID-19 pandemic has created a situation of human disability in terms of diverse conditions of life. This paper studies the similarities and differences between human life conditions during the Second World War and the pandemic time of COVID-19. This paper relies on Beckett's Happy Day to reflect the living conditions caused by the Second World War. Parallelly, references to international reports and articles about COVID-19 are made to depict the life conditions created since the spread of the virus. Hence, this study tries to answer the hypothetical question of how similar human life during the COVID-19 pandemic time is to that depicted by Samuel Beckett represents in his play Happy Days. This paper is restricted to the psychological consequences of pandemics. However, as plague literature resurrects, relationships between pandemics and human living conditions are invited to the table of academia. Other pandemics in different times in history, other types of consequences, and diverse literary works are highly recommended to be the subject matter of researchers worldwide. </em></p> Firas Alkurdi Copyright (c) 2022 Firas Alkurdi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 4 3 277 286 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1023 The Drama on Provincial Accented Speech https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1031 <p><em>This phenomenological study looked into the lived experiences of fourth-year students exposed to the drama of provincial accented speech. Colaizzi's descriptive approach was used in the study with the purposively chosen key informants with various tools to cross-check their responses. Results showed biases on an accent because the informants thought inferiority of their accent, harassment on accented speech for they experience overt linguistic racism, probable accent discrimination, and accent intelligibility were some of the issues the students encountered. However, there were also feats to consider in using provincial accented speech to fellow second language (L2) English speakers. These were the accent sapiency and accented speech ego and pride. Based on the study’s findings, the English second language teachers and professionals are encouraged to address these identified dramas, for they have a valuable role, provided they possess the knowledge and attitudes needed to foster acceptance of linguistic diversity.</em></p> Jake Malon Copyright (c) 2022 Jake Malon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 4 3 287 297 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1031 Identifying Light Verb Constructions in Indonesian: A Direct Translation Approach https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1042 <p><em>This study aimed to identify light verb constructions (LVCs) in Indonesian based on machine translation methods, namely binary translation or direct translation. Based on the method, the LVCs of the source language (SL) were selected and utilized to construct the LVCs counterpart of the target language (TL). The SL instrument has been developed using previous studies on English and Hungarian, namely the LVCs matrix formulated by Vincze (2011). The TL data were in the equivalent forms of LVCs in Indonesian. Data analysis was carried out based on morphosemantics and morphosyntax. Based on the study, the result was stated as follows, i.e. (i) there were translation work procedures that needed to be carried out to process LVCs from SL to TL regarding the type of translator, limited text selection, and final counterpart assignation; (ii) there were changes in the morphosemantic features of LVCs from SL to TL during the translation process; and (iii) there were grammatical exceptions that cannot be resolved through binary translation methods. This study also suggested a further analysis of LVCs identification through another method, for instance, information retrieval (IR) and information extraction (IE), in the light of computational linguistics. </em></p> Danang Satria Nugraha Copyright (c) 2022 Danang Satria Nugraha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-20 2022-09-20 4 3 298 311 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1042 Literature in EFL/ESL Classroom: Integrating Conventional Poetry as Authentic Material https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1052 <p><em>The paper aims to explore how poetry and poetic devices function as authentic sources and as required materials for teaching and learning English as a second language or a foreign language. It affirms that different modes of poetry, for example, tongue twisters, children's rhymes, sonnets, short and long poems, etc., can be stimulating, appealing, and above all, the natural material to the EFL/ESL classrooms. Through an interactive and integrated teaching approach, the paper intends to promote and motivate learners and teachers to use poetry as a functional source of literature for teaching English as a target language. Simultaneously, the study emphasises the constructive function of literature in developing a language learning process. The paper represents general sources or materials widely used in EFL/ ESL classrooms for decades. It proclaims why including authentic or natural material is inevitable to revitalize the language learning process. It profoundly claims that using conventional poetry in EFL/ESL classrooms can empower the teaching pedagogy with its own stylistic and pragmatic features. To focus on the pedagogical dimension of poetry in second language classrooms, the article demonstrates how a poem can relate to and integrate to enhance the English language and covers the four core language skills, grammar, and vocabulary through a series of interactive classroom activities.</em></p> Muhammmad Reazul Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammmad Reazul Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 312 328 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1052 Rediscovering the Value of Philippine Mythology for Philippine Schools: Literature Review https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/1057 <p><em>The Philippines is one of the countries rich in culture, characterized by different literary art forms, such as indigenous rituals and folk narratives that are passed on to future generations. However, although there have been recurring studies about these literary pieces, some narratives and fields of literary studies are being neglected, such as Philippine Mythology. Yet, the preservation and recognition of Philippine myths may be resolved through the copious integration of these myths into the academe. In this article, the author introduced the state of literature, mainly folk narratives, in Philippine schools and the nature of myths, including the different mythological creatures present in them. There are many discussions concerning the appreciation of these texts from different articles and studies from prominent authors, yet reliving these myths remains not progressive. Schools are one of the most accessible yet trusted sources of facts and important learning, which also are home for young generations who are supposed to be heirs of these value-laden artifacts.</em></p> Alliah Samantha Sugue MERCEDITA REYES Copyright (c) 2022 MERCEDITA REYES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 4 3 329 341 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1057 Procedures Used in the Translation of Culture Specific Items in Moroccan Literary Texts: Lu'bat al-Nisyan as a Case Study https://ijlls.org/index.php/ijlls/article/view/329-340 <p><em>In recent times, literary translation seems to have gained considerable interest among translation scholars and translators. Furthermore, translating culture-specific items (CSIs) in literary texts appear to be one of the most challenging tasks a translator must overcome. In the present article, attempts were made to describe the most and least frequent translation procedures adopted by translators to overcome cultural barriers in the translation of the literary text. The current study used Newmark’s model (1988) for cultural translation, which includes cultural categories and translation procedures to classify the data. Through this model, it was concluded that in the case studied, ‘The Game of Forgetting’, the translator used most frequently modulation, functional equivalent and cultural equivalent to render the meaning of the source text, such as expansion and notes were barely used.</em></p> ikrame chibani Copyright (c) 2022 ikrame chibani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 342 358 10.36892/ijlls.v4i3.1073