International Journal of Language and Literary Studies 2023-01-29T16:03:22+00:00 Open Journal Systems <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> Attitudes of Mohammadia School of Engineering Students towards Online Learning during Covid-19 Pandemic 2022-10-10T06:50:29+00:00 Abdelfattah Laabidi hicham kasmi Khadija Anasse <p><em>Covid-19 has pushed Moroccan education officials and stakeholders to shift to online education as the best possible substitute for in-class teaching. It was confirmed that face-to-face and physical contact are the main ways of virus transfer. So, school closure was an unavoidable decision by decision-makers and educationists alike. The sudden nature of the shift from in-class to online education means that both professors and students were not ready for this new form of education. This study, hence, investigates the attitudes of Mohammadia school of Engineering students in Rabat towards online education during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research design in this study is quantitative, in which questionnaires are used to collect data from 100 third-year students. The collected data are described and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that the majority of students believe online education is not as effective as face-to-face education. Respondents also mentioned some challenges and obstacles that hindered the success of online education. The findings lead the researcher to yield some recommendations in the field of online education in Morocco.</em></p> <p> </p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelfattah Laabidi, hicham kasmi, Khadija Anasse The "Demonic Other” and the Colonial Figures in Kipling’s The White Man’s Burden and Taher’s Sunset Oasis: A Comparative Study 2022-09-22T18:06:06+00:00 Abdel Kareem Shehata <p><em>In 1899, The British poet Rudyard Kipling directed his poem, The White Man’s Burden, to the United States on the occasion of the invasion of the Philippine Islands. In his poem, Kipling mainly encourages the States to occupy the Islands. Kipling also draws a portrait of the colonized peoples. In 2007, the Egyptian novelist Bahaa Taher published his novel (Waht Al Ghoroub), Sunset Oasis. In his novel, Taher presents a group of Egyptian, English, Irish and Circassian characters who live in Egypt during and after the Urabi Revolution (1882). The first aim of this paper is to show the main features of the picture of the colonized people in Kipling's poem. The second aim is to highlight the traits of the pictures of the characters, who are terribly influenced by the imperial project throughout the history in Taher's novel. Comparing Kipling's and Taher's pictures is another important aim of the paper. The paper will achieve these aims in the light of the postcolonial theory and the paper comes in two parts and a conclusion.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdel Kareem Shehata Transformational Educational Leadership: A Review of Relevant Literature with a Focus on Implications and Recommendations for Good Practice 2022-10-01T11:09:42+00:00 Fatima Basaffar <p><em>Educational leadership is a position that demands high-level skills and knowledge. The present paper attempts to summarize a few major aspects of transformational educational leadership. The paper first starts by briefly introducing the historical background of educational leadership in general and transformational leadership in particular. The paper then defines transformational leadership, focusing on the theory's main elements and its behavioural implications. Several relevant research is then introduced. The paper concludes by emphasizing the significance and effectiveness of the theory in the educational field. Finally, implications and recommendations for good practices are presented for further application.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fatima Basaffar The Effects of the Physical Setting on Students’ Listening Comprehension 2022-10-16T12:02:28+00:00 Bahzad Ameen Saeed A. Saeed <p><em>Since the physical setting in the listening comprehension process has been proven to be one of the troublesome issues for EFL learners, The current study looks into the possibility that the physical environment impacts students' listening comprehension process. The study aims to find out problems with hearing due to the physical environment. To do this, a questionnaire survey was prepared to serve the aim of the study. The sample of this study consists of 87 participants. Eighteen males and sixty-nine females from 2nd year English department students of the College of Basic Education, University of Duhok, took part in the study. The results of this study show that due to a noisy physical setting (or learning environment) and listening aids, materials, or equipment with volume or sound quality issues, students frequently or often have difficulty listening to aurally presented texts. Finally, according to the literature review, the current study's findings are consistent with those of other studies.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bahzad Ameen, Saeed A. Saeed Gender Differences in Using Social Media in Language and Literature Teaching in Multicultural Context 2022-10-18T12:43:52+00:00 DAISY CASIPIT EVELITA CARA-ALAMANI JOAN RAVAGO MERCEDITA REYES JENALYN PAGAY GINA TAGASA <p><em>This paper presents a systematic review of the literature on gender differences using social media to teach language and literature in multicultural contexts published in EBSCO, ERIC, Google Scholar, and SAGE databases. The articles reviewed were put on a grid to facilitate thematizing the data needed to answer the objectives. The findings of the study revealed a gender divide as regards the use of social media, such as females tend to utilize available social media platforms more than males in the case of teachers and show more positive responses to social media use in the classroom. Generally, social media proved to hone the language skills (e.g., writing, reading) and critical thinking skills of the learners, improve communicative competence, develop vocabulary, promote language learning inside and outside the classroom, increase individual and group motivation to learn and succeed, engage students in critical, creative, and collaborative participation in transforming the textual world into a dynamic online community, create meaningful connections for authentic language situations, and support various types of learning styles. Finally, the paper suggests further research on gender differences in social media usage in gender-sensitive teaching in language and literature.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 DAISY CASIPIT, EVELITA CARA-ALAMANI, JOAN RAVAGO, MERCEDITA REYES, JENALYN PAGAY, GINA TAGASA Distinctive Features of Phonemes and First Language Acquisition by a Normally Developing Child Without Hearing Impairment: Evidence from Slovak 2022-11-05T22:16:07+00:00 Renáta Gregová Renáta Panocová <p><em>Speech audiometry uses various types of perceptual tests for the diagnostics of hearing impairment. One of them is a matrix test (Akeroyd et al., 2015), originally prepared for adults, which fully respects the phonological rules of a language, including neutralizations of phonological oppositions based on distinctive features. The shorter version of this test, a so-called reduced matrix test, can be helpful in speech audiometry focusing on children and infants. The goal of our paper is to find out if distinctive features of phonemes are important in the process of first language acquisition. If yes, reduced matrix test aimed at children and infants can be created as a mere simplification of the matrix designed for adults (Panocová &amp; Gregová, 2019). However, if distinctive features do not affect first language acquisition, completely new matrix has to be prepared for infants. The research was based on the longitudinal observation of two infants whose mother tongue is Slovak.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Renáta Gregová, Renáta Panocová Translanguaging as an Inclusive Pedagogical Practice in Early Education Classes 2022-11-09T14:10:09+00:00 Aziz Driouch <p><em>Using students’ full linguistic resources in classes has always been controversial. Some researchers still adopt the monolingual ideology, while others see that incorporating students’ L1s can help in many aspects of teaching practices. This has led to several multilingual pedagogical practices, one of which is translanguaging. The latter has been theorized as a pedagogical resource for building and promoting students’ knowledge and inclusion. This study examines translanguaging as an inclusive strategy in early education. The participants are teachers and students from three preschool classes. This study aims to explore to what extent translanguaging helps engage students more in their classroom activities and boosts their well-being in their classes. Then, teachers’ perceptions of translanguaging as a pedagogical practice were investigated. Both classroom observations and interviews were used as research instruments in this study. The results indicated that translanguaging helps significantly in engaging young learners in their classroom activities and increases participation and fun during learning activities. Concerning the teachers’ perceptions, although they see that translanguaging creates more fun and engagement, they are still reluctant to embrace and employ it in their daily teaching practice for various pedagogical and personal reasons. </em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aziz Driouch Training on English as a Medium of Instruction: Moroccan Public Secondary School Math and Science Teachers 2022-11-27T13:18:15+00:00 Fatima Anaam <p><em>This study examines the experiences and perceptions of Moroccan public secondary school math and science teachers on training for English as a medium of instruction (EMI). In order to meet this objective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six EMI math and science teachers from Moroccan public secondary schools in Rabat-Salé-Kénitra. The findings revealed that there was a shortage of training on EMI. All of the EMI teachers did not receive specialized EMI pre-service training. In addition, three undertook a short EMI in-service training, mainly at the beginning of their EMI teaching careers. Additionally, all of these EMI teachers explicitly expressed their need for future training for continuous improvement. Five of them desired additional training in the English language to improve their language proficiency. Three of these five teachers specifically wanted to learn scientific terminologies in English. Furthermore, one of these three teachers wanted to develop her speaking skills to communicate more effectively with students. Differently from the stream, an EMI teacher needed training in both the English language and EMI teaching methodologies. Overall, this study offers insights into this under-researched context of the EMI program in Morocco and provides recommendations for future research.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fatima Anaam Phonemic Characterization of the Production of English Consonants by Nonnative Saudi Speakers 2022-12-19T21:57:30+00:00 Ghazi Algethami <p><em>The current study characterizes the production of English consonants by Saudi L2 speakers and offers pedagogical implications for teachers and curriculum designers. Fifteen nonnative Saudi speakers, with at least one of year of residence in an English-speaking country, were recorded individually reading an English passage containing all the English consonants. Their recordings were subjected to a segmental, phonemic analysis to identify and describe any phonemic mispronunciation. The following consonants were found challenging to the Saudi L2 speakers: </em><em>/v/, /?/, /p/ and /</em><em>?/. Their production of these consonants was characterized by devoicing of /v/, inserting /g/ after /</em><em>?/, voicing or lack of aspiration of /p/, and trilling or tapping of /</em><em>?/. L1 influence played the main role in their mispronunciation. Their production of /v/ and /p/ resulted in phonemic substitutions with /f/ and /b/, respectively. These substitutions have the potential of being detrimental to speech intelligibility according to the Functional Load Principle and Lingua Franca Core; therefore, they should be prioritized in teaching English pronunciation to Saudi learners. The paper concludes by outlining pedagogical implications and offering tips for teaching English pronunciation to Saudi learners.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ghazi Algethami Billie Eilish Select Songs: Psychological Study of the Depression of Youth Today 2022-10-31T18:02:32+00:00 Ralph Michael Makiling Kyle Joseph Ilustrisimo Tesalonica Bernaldez Lito Diones <p><em>This study investigates the depression of the youth today in Billie Eilish’s select songs, which specifically looks into the theme, lyrics, and symbols. The Study’s data was gathered by using the Psychodynamic Theory by Sigmund Freud, which talks about the personality of a human being, and Sigmund Freud is Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism, which helps in interpretatively analyzing the texts, and serves as a psychological mechanism to surface out hidden meanings, of literary work. Moreover, this study utilizes a qualitative method using a discourse analysis approach. The findings of the study show that the aspects of depression in the theme of Billie Eilish select songs are unresolved grief, hopelessness caused by loved ones’ abandonment, society’s toxic standards, family pressure, and isolation and insignificance; lyrics surface out being doubtful towards society’s good side, feeling unloved, disappointment in unfavourable circumstances experienced, anxiety being left behind, negative criticisms causing despair, self-pity, misery or loneliness, prolonged helplessness, and rejection as aspects of depression; and abandonment, mental breakdowns, longing for appreciation and acceptance, and heartbreak and loneliness are extracted as aspects of depression in symbols. In conclusion, Billie Eillish’s select songs depict the depression of the youth.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ralph Michael Makiling, Kyle Joseph Ilustrisimo, Tesalonica Bernaldez, Lito Diones Causativization in Arabic: Evidence for the interface between semantics and morpho-phonology 2022-11-14T14:39:53+00:00 Cherif Teimi <p><em>Meaning is derived through the interaction of the components of the linguistic system. As established within the Parallel Architecture Framework (Jackendoff 1997), the linguistic system is composed of components considered equal in terms of producing meaning. In other words, linguistic components are related to each other via interface rules and principles so that they cooperate to derive meaning. In this regard, Morpho-phonological processes constitute the interface between morpho-phonology and semantics. Morphological and phonological features of a word bear on its semantic interpretation. In this article, I deal with Causativization in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA, henceforth), representing a pure phenomenon for the morpho-phonology-semantics interface. Causative verbs in MSA provide good insights into this issue. Adopting Jackendoff’s Conceptual Semantics framework proves that morphology is an autonomous generative component that can generate some aspects of meaning either independently or in cooperation with phonology and/ or other linguistic components; therefore, this proves the interface between morpho-phonology and semantics. </em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Cherif Teimi Preparing South African Foundation Phase Preservice Teachers to Teach Reading for Meaning 2022-11-08T09:01:15+00:00 Nosisi Percis Dlamini <p><em>Scholars have widely documented the current reading crisis in South Africa. This crisis has drawn attention to the need for adequately prepared teachers to teach reading for meaning, particularly in the Foundation Phase classroom. However, little is known about how South African teacher education institutions prepare preservice Foundation Phase teachers to teach reading for meaning. This article addresses this gap by offering recommendations on how South African teacher education institutions can prepare preservice teachers to teach reading for meaning in the Foundation Phase classrooms. The article argues that there is an urgent need for South African teacher education institutions to rethink their curricula to prepare teachers to teach reading for meaning in the South African Foundation Phase classroom. By focusing on preparing Foundation Phase teachers to teach reading for meaning, the article seeks to contribute to a reconceptualization of the content and structure of the South Foundation Phase teacher education curriculum. It also lays the groundwork for further research on the preparation of South African Foundation preservice teachers to teach reading for meaning.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nosisi Percis Dlamini Transitivity in Atukwei Okai’s “The Oath of Fontomfrom” 2022-11-08T15:51:58+00:00 Edward Owusu Emmanuel Botchwey Joseph Benjamin Archibald Afful Asuamah Adade Yeboah Ebenezer Asinyor Abraham Gyasi <p><em>Examining the language of a literary text can be a reliable way of comprehending literary writers’ experiences. This paper explores the relationship between linguistic forms and socially construed meaning in Atukwei Okai’s poem, “The Oath of the Fontomfrom”. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine the poet’s process choices and their typical distribution in the text, (2) assess the participant characteristics of each process category, and (3) establish the role of the speaker/persona in the poem. This descriptive qualitative study was underpinned by the transitivity framework of Halliday and Matthiessen’s (2014) Systemic Functional Linguistics. So, a content analysis tool was used in analysing the text by revealing how meaning is presented. The results revealed that the poet (or persona) used different kinds of processes to present meaning to his reader.Consequently, when these processes were analysed, the results indicated that material processes were most frequently used. The distribution of process types includes 42% material, 16% mental, 15% behavioural, 13% relational, and 10% verbal processes. Again, the persona is involved in 32 processes, constituting 35% of the total processes. The preponderance of material processes revealed that the poet portrayed warfare as mainly involving concrete physical actions.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Edward Owusu, Emmanuel Botchwey, Joseph Benjamin Archibald Afful , Asuamah Adade Yeboah, Ebenezer Asinyor, Abraham Gyasi ESA-EAP Model in the Teaching of Purposive Communication 2022-11-09T08:51:16+00:00 Joemar Miñoza <p><em>This research determined the acceptability of the ESA-EAP model used in the Purposive Communication teaching that the respondents perceive at Cebu Technological University-Tuburan. To obtain the data needed, the descriptive-correlational method of research was employed. Specifically, an adapted questionnaire from Technology Acceptance Model was utilized to determine the acceptability of ESA-EAP. Students’ performance was measured through selected activities. It was found that the student-respondents had a very satisfactory performance; the ESA-EAP model was perceived as very acceptable by both student and teacher respondents; the mean difference between the student respondents’ and teacher respondents’ perceived level of acceptability is not significant; the relationship between academic performance and perceived level of acceptability is not significant; and language barrier and time constraints were the minor problems encountered. It was concluded that ESA-EAP is a teaching model that upholds student-centred learning as it enhances the teaching and learning process in a facilitative manner.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Joemar Miñoza Picturing American War on Iraq: A Visual Discourse Analysis of Decoding ‘Death’ in the Photojournalist’s Lenses 2022-11-18T20:20:35+00:00 Dr.Huda Halawachy <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><em>For me, the strength of photography lies in its ability to evoke humanity. If war is an attempt to negate humanity, then photography can be perceived as the opposite (James Nachtwey) </em></p> <p><em>(</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><em>Death, though certain, is horrible and scary when it comes to the fact that it is due to war and armed conflict for decades in a spot like Iraq. People relate war to history through photography (Topba?, 2011). The current paper fundamentally is a portal to mirroring the photojournalist’s shots in making meaning of death by letting the audience read what is unspeakable in photos. Basically, a collection of (19) photos captured by three World Press Prizes winners, photojournalists – Lynsey Addario, Adam Ferguson, and Ivor Prickett – (among others) – were analysed,, focusing on their galleries of photos and the media on the the American war in Iraq. Doing visual discourse analysis in photos, though of different war eras in Iraq, and a semiotic approach is radically adopted in the analytical part to break the code of Death in the selected photos. Icons and symbols are potentially workable clues for thematizing non-physical death in a place of the world which is devastated thoroughly. It is the bombarded questions on which the current study is based: (1) How could the abstract death be approached linguistically in war photography? (2) Is it the shot that nearly kills the photojournalist being in the front line making them feel a momentum death as the casualties? (3) Is the photojournalist’s role in war an eyewitness of the casualties’ physical bloody death or there could be other hidden deaths that are decoded in the shots?, and (4) Are the camera’s shots reliable enough to speak the messages on death in wartime? The study transpired a variety of deaths in the iconic and symbolic shots of the American war in Iraq. Other academic shots for future works on visual discourse, I remain capturing.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr.Huda Halawachy LESLIE MARMON SILKO’S CEREMONY 2022-12-07T04:41:26+00:00 Mushtaq Abdulhaleem Mohammed Fattah <p>Leslie Marmon Silko is one of the most prodigious Native American writers of the 1970s. She is distinguished for her engagement with folklore traditions, religious inspirations, and quest narratives. In her novel, Ceremony (1977), Silko introduces a man on a journey that is full of hardships and frustrations. Accordingly, the present paper explores Tayo’s journey through which he quests for healing his psychological distress and physical illness caused by the atrocities of World War II. The paper also investigates different kinds of journeys the protagonist, as a war veteran, takes up and the various motives behind them. Finally, the paper tries to answer questions such as “What is the significance of the people the protagonist meets during his healing quest? Is he healed physically and psychologically at the end of the novel? How? Why? How do all the processes of healing contribute to affirming his identity and restoring his humanity?”</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mushtaq Abdulhaleem Mohammed Fattah Negation of Place in the Poetry of Palestinian Women 2022-12-18T21:18:33+00:00 Rawand Sliman-Baraky <p><em>This article aims to clarify both the function of the negation of place in the poetry of Palestinian women and the feminist thought that this negation generates. For these purposes, it presents “Nu??? al-mak?n” [Texts of Place] in the collection Kh?rij al-Fu??l Ta?allamtu al-?ayar?n [Out of the Seasons I Learned to Fly] (Hlewa, 2016) by Sh?kha ?il?w? (born 1968). </em><em>Criticizing one’s place and leaving it reflects a determination to achieve a specific goal. When talking about the Palestinian Arab woman, it appears that she is in two places; one is the patriarchal society around her, and the second is being part of a national minority in a broader society. The process of leaving one’s place is more complex for her than for her male counterparts; the risk of her leaving her place is two-fold because there is a greater lack of security and confidence in reaching a safe place where her dreams can be realized. Leaving her place means opening her mind to even broader aspects than either her society or culture dictates. These broader aspects include the search for what is suitable for women and what enables them to grow as full human beings, using all their faculties and actualizing all their dreams.</em></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rawand Sliman-Baraky Students' Experiences and Perceptions of Boredom in EFL Academic Context 2022-12-12T14:30:04+00:00 Elmakki Amiri Abderrahim ELKARFA Mohamed Sbaihi Gabriele Iannàccaro Elena TAMBURINI <p><em>Academic boredom has captured the attention of psychologists. It is one of the most neglected and underexplored emotions in educational settings. As such, drawing on research findings from related domains, boredom can be seen as a prevalent, deactivating and negative emotion whose detrimental impact affects students’ academic learning and performance (see Pekrun, Goetz, Daniels, Stupnisky &amp; Perry, 2010). The present study investigated students’ perceptions and experiences of boredom in university students. The study also explored different antecedents causing boredom and different coping strategies that students use to cope with it utilizing a mixed-method approach. Quantitative data were collected utilizing a recently designed and validated instrument: Foreign Language Learning Boredom Scale (see Li, Dewaele &amp; Hu, 2021). The sample consisted of 190 Moroccan university students from three countries. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 13 university students describing their experiences of academic boredom. The findings revealed that boredom is pervasive among university students and seen as a complex handicap that may affect the overall well-being of students even though they generally displayed moderate levels of boredom. As such, the findings have also shown several proximate factors and reasons that act as precursors of foreign language learning boredom, including homework, under-challenging and/or over-challenging or meaningless task, teacher-dislike, and PowerPoint presentations. The findings revealed that students used cognitive and behavioural coping strategies to cope with boredom. It is important to note that sometimes students opted for both strategies to combat this negative emotion. Moreover, teachers were also seen as important elements who directly contribute to students’ fight against boredom through creating an emotionally safe and supportive environment. Implications for future research and educational practice are also discussed.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elmakki Amiri Examining the Influence of the First Language on Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language (L2): A Linguistic Interference Perspective 2022-11-24T18:44:57+00:00 Malesela Edward Montle <p><em>The first language influences learning English as a second language (L2). This influential role depends mainly on contextual factors such as classroom setting, pedagogical practices and L1 and L2 exposure levels. This denotes that the first language becomes beneficial to the learning of L2 when the contextual factors work in favour of both languages. Several findings in the literature indicate that the first language plays an influential role in English second language learning. The persuasion can be either positive or negative depending on the level of L2 exposure. This study utilized a qualitative descriptive design to examine the influence of the first language on teaching and learning the English language through a linguistic interference perspective. The researchers employed non-participatory observations, and semi-structured interviews as data collection instruments and qualitative content analysis served as a method of data analysis. The findings indicate that the learners’ first language interferes with learning English as a second language and causes hindrances to their academic success. Thus, a subtractive bilingual education is strongly recommended for English to be extensively exposed to learners.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Malesela Edward Montle Strategies for Word Order Variation Repair between English and Tshivenda at a Rural University 2022-12-31T18:59:44+00:00 Farisani Thomas Nephawe <p><em>Competence in rules for arranging appropriate word order in sentences avoids ambiguity and misinterpretation in communication. Nevertheless, non-native English speakers experience difficulties in word order due to variations between English and Tshivenda. This paper examined strategies for word order variation repair between the two languages. A qualitative research approach was adopted to obtain an in-depth understanding of the use of word order in written essays. An action research method was utilised as it is a critical classroom-based inquiry for identifying and improving the teaching and learning of a particular grammatical aspect. Data were collected from 15 purposefully selected Module 1141 English Communication Skills students at the University of Venda, South Africa. A pilot study was conducted on the use of word order by 10 students who were not part of the study group but shared similar characteristics with them. After utilising discourse critical analysis, it was revealed that learners experienced difficulties regarding declarative, interrogative and negative sentences. However, after employing scaffolding strategies, the students' performance was preternatural because the lowest challenge was misformation, with only 8%, while misordering had 11%. Therefore, scaffolding strategies are recommended in teaching and learning English word order.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 farisani Thomas Nephawe Human Relations in Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice 2022-12-17T18:33:38+00:00 Khalil Alquraidhy <p>This research study aims to highlight and discuss Human Relations in Jane Austen's novel <em>Pride and Prejudice</em>, in which she has selected the basic unit of human relationship, the family. In the family there are several forms of relationships among them the most fundamental relationship is in terms of love and marriage which form the basic theme of the novel <em>Pride and Prejudice</em> along with the theme of human relations.</p> <p> By a close reading of the novel, the present study will analyse and discuss parents and children's relations, friends' relations, and other minor relations. To discuss parents and children's relations the focus will be on the relationship between Mr. Bennet, the father and Elizabeth, the daughter. From a vantage point of view, the daughter reviews the relationship between her father and mother as husband and wife in terms of their love and marriage. She finds it damaging to the family and rejects it. Steering clear of them she treads over her own path. In other words, she doesn't accept her parents as role–models.</p> <p>What is true, socially, and artistically, about the relationship between parents and daughters also holds true about the relationship between the friends, and it has also been discussed and analyzed in this research study. Charlotte Lucas has a realist's idea of marriage. Elizabeth has an idealist's idea of marriage. It is suggested that the ideal becomes perfect only when it accommodates the real.</p> <p> There are a few other minor relations developed around the characters of Wickham and the Gardiners. They play an active role in further clarifying and reinforcing Elizabeth's vision of a marriage with affection.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Khalil Alquraidhy A stylistic Analysis of G. M. Hopkins’ Sea and the Skylark 2023-01-07T16:59:26+00:00 Kahkasha Moin Quadri Haseeb Ahmed Suhel Shaikh <p>This research examines the most-read poem, “The Sea and the Skylark," by G.M. Hopkins. Gerard Manley Hopkins was a great sonneteer, a patriot, an artist, a devotional poet of dogmatic Christianity, and a modern poet. "The Sea and the Skylark” was written by Hopkins in May 1877 in the town of Rhyl, close to St. Bueno’s College, where Hopkins stayed for three years to finish his theological studies. The poet composed this predictive sonnet when he was captivated by the corruption of mankind compared with the inherent innocence of nature. This paper examines numerous literary devices, namely, metaphor, imagery, symbolism, consonance, rhyme, rhythm, and Cynghanedd, which are the backbone of this poem. Artistic excellence and the chiastic effect also support this religious sonnet.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kahkasha Moin Kahkasha Moin Quadri, Haseeb Ahmed, Suhel Shaikh An Error Analysis of Students' Paragraphs and Essays: A Case of First-Year Students of an English Medium University in Bangladesh 2022-10-31T16:05:35+00:00 Md Momtazur Rahman <p><em>Writing is deemed an enticing task in second language learning. Most researchers reason that second-language speakers of English not only find difficulty in writing tasks but speakers whose first language is English also face problems in writing. Therefore, the ability to communicate viably in English by both second language speakers and native speakers requires comprehensive and specific instruction. It is obvious that writing plays an integral role in student's academic life, and academic writing in English has brought considerable attention in English medium universities in Bangladesh. So, the International University of Business Agriculture and Technology (IUBAT) is no exception. This university, a non-government tertiary level and English medium institution in the country emphasize English's importance in producing its graduates from its inception. Writing is a productive skill; as an instructor at this university, I identify students’ difficulty writing compositions. In this paper, I explored the writing errors in a corpus of 30 paragraphs and 15 essays written by first-year students of IUBAT. The findings revealed that students have to face the serious challenges of writing error-free compositions even after completing the two English proficiency courses. Out of the 45 scripts that were analyzed, 96 errors were identified. The study further revealed that 66 of these total errors were related to grammatical errors and poor structuring of sentences. 28 errors were related to the mechanics of writing. The findings of the study direct recommendations and implications for educators, policymakers, and curriculum developers. This study has repercussions for pedagogy and future research in error analysis.</em></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Md Momtazur Rahman Moral Representation of Animals in Arabic and English Children’s Short Stories: A Cognitive Stylistic Approach 2022-09-13T23:36:19+00:00 Duha Muhammad <p><em>This paper investigates the moral representation of animals in two English and Arabic short stories from a cognitive stylistic (CS) perspective. Animal stories appear in a variety of forms, but all include one or more type of animals as the focus of the story. Authors of children literature use animal characters to convey moral ideas through analogy, ideas that would have greater impact than if child characters were presented. CS is the interface between linguistics, literary studies and cognitive science. It deals with the cognitive processes which influence text interpretation during the act of reading. It takes into account both the formal features of language and the nonlinguistic context of the readers in constructing meaning out of a text. The analysis in this paper is conducted through schema theory. The filling-in of textual gaps with one’s own cognitive knowledge is the basic premise behind schema theory. The hallmark of schema theory is that interpreting any kind of fiction relies on the reader’s background knowledge. When reading a text, readers interpret what is presented by supplying their own knowledge of the world. The analysis tackles the examination of both the thematic and technical tools that are employed by the writers of animal short stories to instill morals in the minds and cognitions of the child readers. The two short stories analyzed are; "Finding Nemo" by Andrew Stanton, and an Arabic one entitled "??????? ????? ?????" " kat?k?t? ????? mrt?n "(Katakito errs twice) by Nabil Farouk. The analysis yields the conclusion that the schema of any person, whether the writer or the child reader, is culturally and naturally affected.</em></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 duha muhammad RETFAL: Real-Time Feedback System in Active Learning 2023-01-26T07:36:34+00:00 Mohammed A. Alnahidh Alice S. Li Ben Soh Mohammed A. AlZain <p><em>There are numerous difficulties and challenges faced by teachers in getting real-time feedback from students during lectures in active learning. Three different educational technologies will be investigated in this paper regarding their efficiency and cost effectiveness: (1) Wireless Systems; (2) Tablet Systems; and (3) Audio-Visual Systems. To that end, we propose a new system called Real-Time Feedback in Active Learning system (RETFAL), which is a phone-based application with a view to assist educators in getting real-time feedback.&nbsp; The RETFAL system is implemented on the Android Studio platform using the Java programming language.&nbsp; We validate our RETFAL system using usability testing via an online survey and a face-to-face survey. Finally, we do a comparative study involving the RETFAL system and the LearnStar system in terms of effectiveness and performance. We find that our proposed RETFAL system performs better than the LearnStar system in terms of efficiency and cost-effectiveness with regard to real-time feedback. With RETFAL, we anticipate the performance of students can be improved with effective real-time feedback in active learning.</em></p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed A. Alnahidh , Alice S. Li, Ben Soh , Mohammed A. AlZain Retaining the Mother Tongue while Learning Host Country’s Languages. A Study with Second Generation Sudanese Immigrant Children 2023-01-29T16:03:22+00:00 Abdulghani Eissa Tour Mohammed <p><em>Sadly, the destination of some vital national languages has been buried with their speakers during the whole death trips by land and sea, with the topic of migration affecting a lot of international and local news stations. The present study investigates the difficulties confronting Sudanese immigrant children when communicating in some indigenous languages besides learning the host countries' languages. Most participants in the current study are multilingual Sudanese immigrants from areas and intense conflict zones such as Darfur, Blue Nile, and South Kordofan. The real issue is how immigrants who make it to their intended destinations preserve their home tongues and cultural traditions as sources of identity. The researcher employed a qualitative research methodology to carry out this investigation. An initial 58 Sudanese immigrants were interviewed. The study found that (1) it might be challenging to communicate with kids even though parents speak these languages at home. (2) this situation may decrease the number of those who speak these national languages and will result in losing the national identity of future generations in the diaspora unless this situation changes, (3) children of Sudanese immigrants in the diaspora learn primarily the host country language, in addition to their indigenous languages based on the data collection and analysis. It is recommended that parents should use their local language continually at home with their children to preserve their identity and cultural heritage.</em></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdulghani Eissa Tour Mohammed