Allusion as an Intertextuality Element in Waray Poetry
A Case Study of Francisco Aurillo’s “Diri Ha Tinapay La”
One of the thriving regional literatures in the Philippines is the Waray poetry, and one of the recognized Waray writers is Francisco Aurillo. As commemorative pieces and commentaries on contemporary life in Leyte and Eastern Visayas, Aurillo’s depiction of the cultural and social aspects of the region are drawn from references of Biblical characters, historical figures, and mythological heroes. For years, there has been a growing interest in reviving the dying Waray literature. However, very limited studies have been conducted to assess the presence of intertextuality elements, and how these elements impact versification and meaning in Waray literature. Guided by Paul Ricoeur’s Theory of Textual Interpretation and Julia Kristeva’s Concept of Intertextuality, this study identified the allusions used in Francisco Aurillo’s poem “Diri Ha Tinapay La,” and analyzed how the use of allusions impacts the versification and meaning of the poem. The results of this study revealed that the use of allusion increased the degree of literariness, depth of meaning, and stronger connections between the verses in the poem. It was also found that allusions were used as a way to shift the mood of the poem and served as a presaging and explications to the imagery, metaphors and symbolisms used in the text. The use of allusion, as an intertextuality elements served as a rhetorical device driving the poem to its conclusion.